**Return to Algebraic Thinking Factor page.**

*Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.*

Early algebra assessment (Blanton et al., 2015): Written assessment to measure students' understanding of core algebraic concepts and practices

Andersson, U. (2008). Working memory as a predictor of written arithmetical skills in children: The importance of central executive functions. *The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78*(Pt 2), 181-203.

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. *Learning and Individual Differences, 21*(4), 327-336.

Blanton, M., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Gardiner, A., Isler, I., & Kim, J. (2015). The development of children's algebraic thinking: The impact of a comprehensive early algebra intervention in third grade. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 46*(1), 39-87.

Blanton, M., Brizuela, B., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Isler, I., Gardiner, A., … Stylianou, D. (2018). Implementing a framework for early algebra. In *Teaching and Learning Algebraic Thinking with 5-12 Year Olds. ICME-13 Monographs.* (pp. 27-49). Springer, Cham.

Booker, G. (2009). Algebraic thinking: Generalising number and geometry to express patterns and properties succinctly. *Griffith University, Brisbane*.

Bush, S. B., & Karp, K. S. (2013). Prerequisite algebra skills and associated misconceptions of middle grade students: A review. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 32*(3), 613-632.

Cai, J., & Knuth, E. (Eds.). (2011). *Early algebraization: A global dialogue from multiple perspectives*. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Capraro, M. M., & Joffrion, H. (2006). Algebraic equations: Can middle-school students meaningfully translate from words to mathematical symbols? *Reading Psychology, 27*(2-3), 147-164.

Carraher, D. W., & Schliemann, A. D. (2007). Early algebra and algebraic reasoning. In F. K. Lester, Jr. (Ed.), *Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning* (Vol. 2, pp. 669-705). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Carraher, D. W., Schliemann, A. D., & Schwartz, J. L. (2008). Early algebra is not the same as algebra early. In J. J. Kaput, D. W. Carraher & M. L. Blanton (Eds.), *Algebra in the early grades* (pp. 235-272). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Empson S.B., Levi L., Carpenter T.P. (2011) The algebraic nature of fractions: Developing relational thinking in elementary school. In Cai J., Knuth E. (Eds) *Early Algebraization. Advances in Mathematics Education.* Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Rouder, J. N. (2016). Individual differences in algebraic cognition: relation to the approximate number and semantic memory systems. *Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 15*(4), 942-953.

Irwin, K. C., & Britt, M. S. (2005). The algebraic nature of students' numerical manipulation in the New Zealand Numeracy Project. *Educational Studies in Mathematics, 58*(2), 169-188.

Kaput, J. J. (2008). What is algebra? What is algebraic reasoning? In J. J. Kaput, D. W. Carraher & M. L. Blanton (Eds.), *Algebra in the early grades* (pp. 5-17). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kieran, C. (2007). Learning and teaching of algebra at the middle school through college levels: Building meaning for symbols and their manipulation. In F. Lester (Ed.), _Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning _(pp. 707-762). Reston, VA: NCTM.

Lee, K., Ng, E. L., & Ng, S. F. (2009). The contributions of working memory and executive functioning to problem representation and solution generation in algebraic word problems. *Journal of Educational Psychology, 101*(2), 373-387.

Lee, K., Ng, S. F., Ng, E. L., & Lim, Z. Y. (2004). Working memory and literacy as predictors of performance on algebraic word problems. *Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 89*(2), 140-158.

MacGregor, M., & Price, E. (1999). An exploration of aspects of language proficiency and algebra learning. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 30,* 449-467.

Mix, K. S., Levine, S. C., Young, C., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2016). Separate but correlated: The latent structure of space and mathematics across development. *Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145*(9), 1206-1227.

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common core standards mathematics. Washington, DC: Authors.

Stacey, K., & MacGregor, M. (1997). Building foundations for algebra. *Mathematics teaching in the middle school*, 2(4), 252-60.

Star, J. R., & Rittle-Johnson, B. (2008). Flexibility in problem solving: The case of equation solving. *Learning and Instruction, 18*(6), 565-579.

Stephens, A. C., Ellis, A. B., Blanton, M., & Brizuela, B. M. (2017). Algebraic thinking in the elementary and middle grades. In J. Cai (Ed.), *Compendium for Research in Mathematics Education*. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.