Language Skills, supported through access to books and reading to children, are an important component of early math learning and predict numeracy outcomes.
Children move from reciting the count sequence (1,2,3,4...) without conceptual understanding, to understanding what this order means, and eventually developing Cardinality—an understanding of how many items are in a set.
Both formal math teaching and talk, such as practice Counting, as well as informal, math-related games and activities, such as measuring for baking, can support early math skills.
Students learn to flexibly represent and manipulate numbers.
Children’s ability to perform simple arithmetic Operations, including addition and subtraction of multiple numbers, is a foundational math skill and is predictive of later math success.
Manipulating real objects can help make these abstract concepts more concrete.
Flexibly representing numbers in different ways allows students to better understand them, how they relate to each other, and how to best work with them to solve problems.
These skills are supported by an understanding of the Place Value system for multi-digit numbers, including how numbers can be readily decomposed and re-combined.
Students make connections and persist through challenges.
Students must be persistent and work through the challenge of gaining a deep conceptual understanding of mathematics.
Students who find math relevant or fun are motivated to learn—an important mindset to develop early on that can support productive struggle.