MODEL

Math PK-2

Systems Change

Factor Connections

Hover to see how Factors connect to Vision. Then click connected Factors to explore strategies related to multiple Factors.

We use our Vision to perceive information about the world. Math requires being able to see the detailed features of numbers and other text clearly and being able to track text on paper and a website. Students with uncorrected Vision issues can have difficulty distinguishing numbers and doing math at the same rate as peers with normal or corrected Vision.

Main Ideas

Several different Vision components and skills are important in learning and performing math:

  • Visual acuity is the ability to see objects clearly at a given distance.
  • Visual fixation is the ability to maintain gaze on one location.
  • Visual field is the entire area that a student can see, including peripheral and central vision.
  • Binocular fusion is the brain's ability to form one image from visual input received from two eyes.
  • Convergence is moving eyes toward each other to focus on a nearby object.
  • Accommodation is maintaining focus on an object as the distance to the object changes.
  • Eye tracking and teaming are the muscles of both of your eyes coordinating to move, point, and turn together.

Early identification of Vision problems is critical for preventing academic difficulties later. Some behaviors that can indicate a student has uncorrected Vision issues are covering or closing one eye, rubbing their eyes frequently, complaining of double vision, losing their place while reading or writing, or experiencing Attention difficulties.

Vision screenings at school typically only assess visual acuity, so it is possible for a student to have a Vision problem in other areas even though they pass the screening. So if a student is at risk for having Vision problems, they should receive an extensive eye examination regardless of screening results.

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