Measures and References: Vision

Return to Vision factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Vision Screening (American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014): Screening for difficulties with Visual Acuity in children typically involves an eye chart using shapes and symbols rather than letters, and the child is asked to identify symbols on the chart with both eyes and with each eye individually at varying distances.

Extensive Vision Evaluations (American Optometric Association, 2019): These exams thoroughly test all aspects of Vision. This may include tests of visual field, binocular vision, convergence, and accommodation.


American Optometric Association. (2019). Limitations of Vision Screening Programs. Retrieved from:

Basch, C. E. (2011). Vision and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. Journal of School Health, 81(10), 599-605.

Bouchard, D., & Tetreault, S. (2000). The motor development of sighted children and children with moderate low vision aged 8-13. Journal Of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 94(9), 564-573.

Glewwe, P., Park, A., & Zhao, M. (2016). A better vision for development: Eyeglasses and academic performance in rural primary schools in China. Journal of Development Economics, 122, 170-182.

Lieberman, L. J., & McHugh, E. (2001). Health-related fitness of children who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(5), 272-287.

Rosner, J., & Rosner, J. (1987). Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties. Optometry & Vision Science, 64(7), 531-533.

Ungar, S., Blades, M., & Spencer, C. (1996). The construction of cognitive maps by children with visual impairments. In The construction of cognitive maps (pp. 247-273). Springer, Dordrecht.

Verweyen, P. (2004). Measuring vision in children. Community Eye Health, 17(50), 27-29.