Given the robust nature of learning sciences research, this website is best viewed on tablets and computers. A small screen experience is coming in the future.

Hover to see how factors connect to Arithmetic Fact Retrieval. Then click connected factors to explore strategies related to multiple factors.

Arithmetic Fact Retrieval requires efficiently, accurately, and flexibly drawing basic number combinations from Long-term Memory to use in performing more complex calculations. Though arithmetic facts and number combinations are typically in place by the end of elementary school, fluent and flexible fact retrieval continues to scaffold math learning and outcomes through high school.

More recently, the term arithmetic or number **combinations** is often used in place of "fact retrieval" because basic arithmetic problems can be solved in a variety of ways and are not always retrieved as "facts."

There are three key components to Arithmetic Fact Retrieval:

**Efficiency:**Retrieval of arithmetic combinations should be fluent and use the most directly applicable strategy;**Accuracy:**Arithmetic combinations stored in Long-term Memory should be correct; and**Flexibility:**Combinations allow students to access and use their connected number networks for arithmetic problem solving.

Before students are able to use fact retrieval with efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility, they need to have experience working with number combinations using modeling and counting strategies. This experience provides opportunities for students to develop a network of connections that supports understanding. This network, in turn, allows students to use fact retrieval strategies that are less subject to interference and errors. For example, to figure 7 + 4, a student with a connected network of understanding might retrieve the fact 7+3 = 10 and relate it to 7 + 4 by adding one: 7 + 4 = 7+3 +1, or 10+1.

As students solve problems in a group, they learn new strategies and practice communicating their mathematical thinking.

CRA is a sequential instructional approach during which students move from working with concrete materials to creating representational drawings to using abstract symbols.

Students activate more cognitive processes by exploring and representing their understandings in visual form.

Continual use of foundational skills with different problems reinforces a conceptual understanding of math skills.

10 minutes in each math session devoted to building fluent retrieval of basic math facts sets the foundation for learning new concepts.

Daily review strengthens previous learning and can lead to fluent recall.

When students explain their thinking process aloud with guidance in response to questions or prompts, they recognize the strategies they use and solidify their understanding.

Adding motions to complement learning activates more cognitive processes for recall and understanding.

In guided inquiry, teachers help students use their own language for constructing knowledge by active listening and questioning.

Spending time with new content helps move concepts and ideas into Long-term Memory.

Practicing until achieving several error-free attempts is critical for retention.

Math centers with math games, manipulatives, and activities support learner interests and promote the development of more complex math skills and social interactions.

Math games use numbers and Spatial Skills, allowing students to practice many math skills in a fun, applied context.

Rhyming, alliteration, and other sound devices reinforce math skills development by activating the mental processes that promote memory.

When students have meaningful conversations about math and use math vocabulary, they develop the thinking, questioning, and explanation skills needed to master mathematical concepts.

Creating patterns for remembering classroom processes, narrative structures, etc.

By talking through their thinking at each step of a process, teachers can model what learning looks like.

Visualizing how ideas fit together helps students construct meaning and strengthen recall.

Providing physical representations of numbers and math concepts helps activate mental processes.

Easy access to seeing the relationships between numbers promotes number sense as students see these connections repeatedly.

Visual representations help students understand what a number represents as well as recognize relationships between numbers.

Connecting information to music and dance moves enhances Short-term and Long-term Memory by drawing on auditory processes and the cognitive benefits of physical activity.

When teachers connect math to the students' world, students see how math is relevant and applicable to their daily lives.

Students deepen their understanding and gain confidence in their learning when they explain to and receive feedback from others.

Math games and manipulatives for vision differences support math development for learners with visual needs.

Children's literature can be a welcoming way to help students learn math vocabulary and concepts.

Students develop their skills by listening to and speaking with others in informal ways.

Three-phase lesson format is a problem-solving structure to promote meaningful math learning by activating prior knowledge, letting students explore mathematical thinking, and promoting a math community of learners.

Untimed tests provide students the opportunity to flexibly and productively work with numbers, further developing their problem-solving abilities.

Having students verbally repeat information such as instructions ensures they have heard and supports remembering.

Wait time, or think time, of three or more seconds after posing a question increases how many students volunteer and the length and accuracy of their responses.

Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Are you sure you want to delete this Workspace?

Enter the email address of the person you want to share with. This person will be granted access to this workspace and will be able to view and edit it.

Create a new Workspace for your product or project.

Make a copy of this workspace.

Redirecting soon...

Generating summary page

Loading...

On this page, using your heatmap, you will be asked to select factors to further explore, and then select new strategies you might incorporate into upcoming instruction. Once done, click “Show Summary" to view your Design Summary Report.

On this page, using your heatmap, you will be asked to select factors to further explore, and then select new strategies you might incorporate into upcoming instruction. Once done, click “Show Report” to view your Design Summary Report.

By selecting "Show Report" you will be taken to the Assessment Summary Page. Once created, you will not be able to edit your report. If you select cancel below, you can continue to edit your factor and strategy selections.

Item successfully added to workspace!

Issue adding item to workspace. Please refresh the page and try again.