Measures and References: Arithmetic Fact Retrieval

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Arithmetic Fact Retrieval Task (LeFevre, Sadesky, & Bisanz, 1996): Assesses Arithmetic Fact Retrieval by asking students to solve simple math Operations and observing or asking for self-report on strategy use


Barrouillet, P., & Lepine, R. (2005). Working memory and children's use of retrieval to solve addition problems. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 91, 183-204.

Bellon, E., Fias, W., & De Smedt, B. (2016). Are individual differences in arithmetic fact retrieval in children related to inhibition? Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-11.

Bull, R., & Johnston, R. (1997). Children's arithmetical difficulties : Contributions from processing speed, item identification, and short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 65, 1-24.

De Smedt, B., Taylor, J., Archibald, L., & Ansari, D. (2010). How is phonological processing related to individual differences in children's arithmetic skills? Developmental Science, 13(3), 508-520.

De Smedt, B., Holloway, I. D., & Ansari, D. (2011). Effects of problem size and arithmetic operation on brain activation during calculation in children with varying levels of arithmetical fluency. NeuroImage, 57(3), 771-781.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Bailey, D. H. (2012). Fact retrieval deficits in low achieving children and children with mathematical learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(4), 291-307.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Nugent, L. (2012). Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113(1), 49-65.

Mussolin, C., & Noel, M.P. (2008). Specific retrieval deficit from long-term memory in children with poor arithmetic facts abilities. The Open Psychology Journal, 1, 26-34.

Simmons, F. R., & Singleton, C. (2007). Do weak phonological representations impact on arithmetic development? A review of research into arithmetic and dyslexia. Dyslexia, 14, 77-94.

Vanbinst, K., Ghesquiere, P., & De Smedt, B. (2014). Arithmetic strategy development and its domain-specific and domain-general cognitive correlates: A longitudinal study in children with persistent mathematical learning difficulties. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(11), 3001-3013.

Viterbori, P., Usai, M. C., Traverso, L., & De Franchis, V. (2015). How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 140, 38-55.