Math PK-2

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Math PK-2 > Factors > Working Memory

Working Memory

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Working Memory, a component of executive functioning, allows a person to temporarily hold and manipulate information to apply in other processes. With our Working Memory, we recall and apply the knowledge stored in our Short- and Long-term Memories to help understand what we are learning. Working Memory is likely required for retaining information during math problem solving, in particular with more novel or complex problem types. When Working Memory is overtaxed, a math student can appear to have a poor attention span and be easily distracted because they struggle recalling and using information.

Main Ideas

Working Memory can also be called updating as it involves working with and updating information in memory. One influential model of Working Memory lays out four components, each considered to have a limited capacity. These separate components are responsible for maintaining verbal Working Memory, visual and spatial Working Memory, and for integrating information from these components that serves as a link between Long-term Memory and Working Memory. In addition, there is an executive control system which directs activities within these systems, including shifting and focusing attention between them.

Cognitive load is another important element of Working Memory and refers to the amount of mental effort being expended by Working Memory during different tasks. Cognitive Load Theory proposes that instruction can be designed in a way that reduces some components of cognitive load:

  • Intrinsic: The cognitive load that results from characteristics (e.g., difficulty) of the content being learned by the student;
  • Extraneous: The cognitive load that results from how the content is presented (e.g., visuals) to the student; and
  • Germane: The cognitive load required to create permanent schemas, or concepts, in Long-term Memory. Once schema are made, it is easier to hold information that fit within those schema in Working Memory.

Learn More

  • Cognition & Memory: Topic that includes cognitive science theories about how the brain processes information on Digital Promise's Research Map
  • Working Memory: Subtopic that describes the function of the brain's working memory on Digital Promise's Research Map
  • Student-Centered Strategies: Free microcredential on strategies to support students' learning differences

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