Measures and References: Auditory Processing

Return to Auditory Processing factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Tests for Auditory Processing Disorders in Adolescents and Adults (SCAN-3:A) (Keith, 2009): Measures Auditory Processing in adults 18-50 years old with tasks such as listening to words and sentences in background noise.


Ahissar, M., Protopapas, A., Reid, M., & Merzenich, M. M. (2000). Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(12), 6832-6837.

Alain, C., & Woods, D. L. (1999). Age-related changes in processing auditory stimuli during visual attention: Evidence for deficits in inhibitory control and sensory memory. Psychology and Aging, 14(3), 507-519.

Dryden, A., Allen, H. A., Henshaw, H., & Heinrich, A. (2017). The association between cognitive performance and speech-in-noise perception for adult listeners: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Trends in Hearing, 21, 1-21.

Edwards, J. D., Walley, A. C., & Ball, K. K. (2003). Phonological, visual and temporal processing in adults with and without reading disability. Reading and Writing, 16(8), 737-758.

Fostick, L., & Revah, H. (2018). Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal processing. Acta Psychologica, 183, 19-28.

Gu, C., & Bi, H.-Y. (2020). Auditory processing deficit in individuals with dyslexia: A meta-analysis of mismatch negativity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 116, 396-405.

Hamalainen, J. A., Salminen, H. K., & Leppanen, P. H. (2013). Basic auditory processing deficits in dyslexia: Systematic review of the behavioral and event-related potential/field evidence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(5), 413-427.

Martin, N., & Brownell, R. (2005). Test of Auditory Processing Skills. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications.

Hotting, K., & Roder, B. (2009). Auditory and auditory-tactile processing in congenitally blind humans. Hearing Research, 258(1-2), 165-174.

Humes, L. E. (2008). Aging and speech communication: Peripheral, central-auditory, and cognitive factors affecting the speech-understanding problems of older adults. The ASHA Leader, 13(5), 10-33.

Ingvalson, E. M., Ettlinger, M., & Wong, P. C. (2014). Bilingual speech perception and learning: A review of recent trends. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(1), 35-47.

Mattingly, J. K., Castellanos, I., & Moberly, A. C. (2019). Nonverbal reasoning as a contributor to sentence recognition outcomes in adults with cochlear implants. Otology & Neurotology: Official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology, 39(10), e956.

Pichora-Fuller, M. K. (2003). Processing speed and timing in aging adults: psychoacoustics, speech perception, and comprehension. International Journal of Audiology, 42(S1), 59-67.

Ronen, M., Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, A., Taitelbaum-Swead, R., & Fostick, L. (2018). Auditory temporal processing, reading, and phonological awareness among aging adults. Acta Psychologica, 190, 1-10.

Schneider, B. A., Daneman, M., & Murphy, D. R. (2005). Speech comprehension difficulties in older adults: Cognitive slowing or age-related changes in hearing?. Psychology and Aging, 20(2), 261.

Shinn-Cunningham, B. G. (2008). Object-based auditory and visual attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(5), 182-186.

Skoe, E., Brody, L., & Theodore, R. M. (2017). Reading ability reflects individual differences in auditory brainstem function, even into adulthood. Brain and Language, 164, 25-31.

Tun, P. A., Williams, V. A., Small, B. J., & Hafter, E. R. (2012). The effects of aging on auditory processing and cognition. American Journal of Audiology, 21(2), 344-350.

Wong, P. C., Jin, J. X., Gunasekera, G. M., Abel, R., Lee, E. R., & Dhar, S. (2009). Aging and cortical mechanisms of speech perception in noise. Neuropsychologia, 47(3), 693-703.

Zatorre, R. J., & Belin, P. (2001). Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 11(10), 946-953.