Measures and References: Auditory Processing

Return to Auditory Processing factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Test of Auditory Processing Skills (Martin, Brownell & Hamaguchi, 2018): Assessment of Language Processing skills including Auditory Memory, Listening Comprehension, and Phonological skills for students aged four to 18


Boets, B., Wouters, J., Van Wieringen, A., De Smedt, B., & Ghesquiere, P. (2008). Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement. Brain and Language, 106(1), 29-40.

Brandwein, A. B., Foxe, J. J., Butler, J. S., Frey, H. P., Bates, J. C., Shulman, L. H., & Molholm, S. (2015). Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(1), 230-244.

Leppanen, P. H., Hamalainen, J. A., Salminen, H. K., Eklund, K. M., Guttorm, T. K., Lohvansuu, K., ... Lyytinen, H. (2010). Newborn brain event-related potentials revealing atypical processing of sound frequency and the subsequent association with later literacy skills in children with familial dyslexia. Cortex, 46(10), 1362-1376.

Martin, N., & Brownell, R. (2005). Test of Auditory Processing Skills. Academic Therapy Publications: Novato, CA.

Stevens, C., Harn, B., Chard, D. J., Currin, J., Parisi, D., & Neville, H. (2013). Examining the role of attention and instruction in at-risk kindergarteners electrophysiological measures of selective auditory attention before and after an early literacy intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(1), 73-86.

Swanson, J. M., Schuck, S., Porter, M. M., Carlson, C., Hartman, C. A., Sergeant, J. A., … Wigal, T. (2012). Categorical and Dimensional Definitions and Evaluations of Symptoms of ADHD: History of the SNAP and the SWAN Rating Scales. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 10(1), 51-70.

White-Schwoch, T., Carr, K. W., Thompson, E.C., Anderson, S., Nicol, T., Bradlow, A., ... Kraus, N. (2015). Auditory processing in noise: A preschool biomarker for literacy. PLOS Biology, 13(7), 1-17.