References: Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA)

Return to Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) strategy page.


The Access Center. (2004). Concrete-representational-abstract instructional a__pproach. Washington, D.C.

Ansell, E., & Pagliaro, C. M. (2006). The relative difficulty of signed arithmetic story problems for primary level deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(2), 153-170.

Butler, F. M., Miller, S. P., Crehan, K., Babbitt, B., & Pierce, T. (2003). Fraction instruction for students with mathematics disabilities: Comparing two teaching sequences. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(2), 99-111.

Flores, M. M. (2010). Using the concrete-representational-abstract sequence to teach subtraction with regrouping to students at risk for failure. Remedial and Special Education, 31(3), 195-207.

Louie, J., Brodesky, A., Brett, J., Yang, L. M., & Tan, Y. (2008). Math education practices for students with disabilities and other struggling learners: Case studies of six schools in two northeast and islands region states (Issues and answers report, REL 2008-No. 053). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, & Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands.

Sealander, K. A., Johnson, G. R., Lockwood, A. B., & Medina, C. M. (2012). Concrete-semiconcrete-abstract (CSA) instruction: A decision rule for improving instructional efficacy. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 38(1), 53-65.

Willis, J. (2006). Research-based strategies to ignite student learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Witzel, B. S., Mercer, C. D., & Miller, M. D. (2003). Teaching algebra to students with learning difficulties: An investigation of an explicit instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(2), 121-131.

Witzel, B. S., & Riccomini, P. J. (2009). Computation of fractions: Math intervention for elementary and middle grades students. New York, NY: Pearson.