Measures and References: Counting

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Early Numeracy Test Part 2 (ENT; Van Luit, Van de Rijt, & Pennings, 1994): Task-based assessment developed for K-1 students including 20 items assessing Counting knowledge with four subtests


Aunio, P., Hautamaki, J., Heiskari, P., & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2006). The Early Numeracy Test in Finnish: Children's norms. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47(5), 369-378.

Aunio, P., & Niemivirta, M. (2010). Predicting children's mathematical performance in grade one by early numeracy. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(5), 427-435.

Aunola, K., Leskinen, E., Lerkkanen, M., & Nurmi, J. (2004). Developmental dynamics of math performance from preschool to grade 2. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 699-713.

Deflorio, L., & Beliakoff, A. (2015). Socioeconomic status and preschoolers' mathematical knowledge: The contribution of home activities and parent beliefs. Early Education and Development, 26(3), 319-341.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Byrd-Craven, J., & DeSoto, M. C. (2004). Strategy choices in simple and complex addition: Contributions of working memory and counting knowledge for children with mathematical disability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88(2), 121-151.

Koponen, T., Salmi, P., Eklund, K., & Aro, T. (2013). Counting and RAN: Predictors of arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 162.

Koresbergen, E. H., Van Luit, J. E. H., Van Lieshout, E. C. D. M., Van Loosbroek, E., & Van de Rijt, B. A. M. (2009). Young children at risk for math disabilities: Counting skills and executive functions. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27(3), 226-236.

Lan, X., Legare, C. H., Cameron, C., Li, S., & Morrison, F. J. (2011). Investigating the links between the subcomponents of executive function and academic achievement: A cross-cultural analysis of Chinese and American preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 677-692.

Manolitsis, G., Georgiou, G. K., & Tziraki, N. (2013). Examining the effects of home literacy and numeracy environment on early reading and math acquisition. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 692-703.

Martin, R. B., Cirino, P. T., Sharp, C., & Barnes, M. (2014). Number and counting skills in kindergarten as predictors of grade 1 mathematical skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 34, 12-23.

Nguyen, T., Watts, T. W., Duncan, G. J., Clements, D. H., Sarama, J. S., Wolfe, C., & Elaine, M. (2016). Which preschool mathematics competencies are most predictive of fifth grade achievement? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 550-560.

Noel, M.-P. (2009). Counting on working memory when learning to count and to add: A preschool study. Developmental Psychology, 45(6), 1630-1643.

Östergren, R., & Traff, U. (2013). Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 405-421.

Sarnecka, B. W., & Carey, S. (2008). How counting represents number: What children must learn and when they learn it. Cognition, 108, 662-674.

Van Luit, J. E. H., Van de Rijt, B. A. M., & Pennings, A. H. (1994). Utrechtse getalbegrip toets [early numeracy test]. Doetinchem, The Netherlands: Graviant.

Zhang, X., Koponen, T., Rasanen, P., Aunola, K., Lerkkanen, M. K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2014). Linguistic and spatial skills predict early arithmetic development via counting sequence knowledge. Child Development, 85(3), 1091-1107.