References: Creating Visual Representations

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Blatto-Vallee, G., Kelly, R. R., Gaustad, M. G., Porter, J., & Fonzi, J. (2007). Visual-spatial representation in mathematical problem solving by deaf and hearing students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12(4), 432-448.

Booth, J. L., & Koedinger, K. R. (2012). Are diagrams always helpful tools? Developmental and individual differences in the effect of presentation format on student problem solving. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 492-511.

Casler-Failing, S. (2002). Multimodal and hands-on strategies to promote mathematical knowledge and skill development in students with a special focus on English language learners. Unpublished manuscript, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY.

Furner, J. M., Yahya, N., & Duffy, M. L. (2005). Teach mathematics: Strategies to reach all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(1), 16-23.

Gentry, M. M., Chinn, K. M., & Moulton, R. D. (2004). Effectiveness of multimedia reading materials when used with children who are deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 149(5), 394-403.

Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.

The IRIS Center. (2017). High-quality mathematics instruction: What teachers should know. Retrieved from

Jayanthi, M., Gersten, R., Baker, S. (2008). Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities or difficulty learning mathematics: A guide for teachers. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.

Krawec, J. L. (2014). Problem representation and mathematical problem solving of students of varying math ability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 103-115.

Langrall, C.W., Makar, K., Nilsson, P., & Shaughnessy, J.M. (2017) Teaching and learning probability and statistics: An integrated perspective. In Cai, J. (Ed.), Compendium for research in mathematics education (pp. 490-525). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223-231.

Woodward, J. (2006). Developing automaticity in multiplication facts: Integrating strategy instruction with timed practice drills. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29(4), 269-289.