Measures and References: References: Creativity

Return to References: Creativity factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Assessing Creativity: A Palette of Possibilities: . LEGO Foundation resource with considerations and rubrics for assessing creativity in the classroom.

Creative Self-Efficacy Scale: (CSE): Self-report measure of creative self-efficacy in middle and high school aged students. The 3 items contained within the CSE are answered on a five-point Likert scale.


Amabile, T. M., & Hennessey, B. A. (1992). The motivation for creativity in children. Achievement and Motivation: A Social-Developmental Perspective, 54-74.

Anderson, R. C., & Haney, M. (2021). Reflection in the creative process of early adolescents: The mediating roles of creative metacognition, self-efficacy, and self-concept. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 15(4), 612.

Anderson, R. C., Haney, M., Pitts, C., Porter, L., & Bousselot, T. (2020). “Mistakes can be beautiful”: Creative engagement in arts integration for early adolescent learners. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 54(3), 662-675.

Arán Filippetti, V., & Krumm, G. (2020). A hierarchical model of cognitive flexibility in children: Extending the relationship between flexibility, creativity and academic achievement. Child Neuropsychology, 26(6), 770-800.

Baas, M., De Dreu, C. K., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?. Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 779.

Batchelor, K. E., & Bintz, W. P. (2013). Promoting creativity in the middle grades language arts classroom: Four overarching principles and concrete learning activities help teachers to overcome challenges to promoting rich and authentic creativity among students. Middle School Journal, 45(1), 3-11.

Bhui, K., Shakoor, S., Mankee-Williams, A., & Otis, M. (2022). Creative arts and digital interventions as potential tools in prevention and recovery from the mental health consequences of adverse childhood experiences. Nature Communications, 13(1), 7870.

Cassotti, M., Agogué, M., Camarda, A., Houdé, O., & Borst, G. (2016). Inhibitory control as a core process of creative problem solving and idea generation from childhood to adulthood. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2016(151), 61-72.

Clapp, E. P., & Hanchett Hanson, M. (2019). Participatory creativity: Supporting dynamic roles and perspectives in the classroom. Dynamic perspectives on creativity: New directions for theory, research, and practice in education, 27-46.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., Routledge, R., Gute, G., Gute, D. S., Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The early lives of highly creative persons: The influence of the complex family. The Systems Model of Creativity: The Collected Works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 293-317.

Dahl, R. E. (2017). Changes in cognitive flexibility and hypothesis search across human life history from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(30), 7892-7899.

Fearon, D. D., Copeland, D., & Saxon, T. F. (2013). The relationship between parenting styles and creativity in a sample of Jamaican children. Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), 119-128.

Feldhusen, J. F. (2002). Creativity: the knowledge base and children. High Ability Studies, 13(2), 179-183.

Gajda, A., Karwowski, M., & Beghetto, R. A. (2017). Creativity and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(2), 269.

Gerver, C. R., Griffin, J. W., Dennis, N. A., & Beaty, R. E. (2023). Memory and creativity: A meta-analytic examination of the relationship between memory systems and creative cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-39.

Gill, D., & Prowse, V. L. (2021). The Creativity Premium. Available at SSRN 3855808.

Gonzalez-Carpio, G., Serrano, J. P., & Nieto, M. (2017). Creativity in children with attention déficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychology, 8(03), 319.

Haase, J., Hoff, E. V., Hanel, P. H., & Innes-Ker, Å. (2018). A meta-analysis of the relation between creative self-efficacy and different creativity measurements. Creativity Research Journal, 30(1), 1-16.

Hennessey, B. A., Amabile, T. M., & Martinage, M. (1989). Immunizing children against the negative effects of reward. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 14(3), 212-227.

Hennessey, B. A. (2001). The social psychology of creativity: Effects of evaluation on intrinsic motivation and creativity of performance.Multiple Perspectives on the Effects of Evaluation on Performance.

Hoffmann, J., & Russ, S. (2012). Pretend play, creativity, and emotion regulation in children. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(2), 175.

Hopfenbeck, T. N., Denton-Calabrese, T., Johnston, S.-K., Scott-Barrett, J., & Mcgrane, J. A. (2022). Facilitating Curiosity and Creativity in the Classroom An International Multisite Video Study.

Latorre Roman, P. A., Pinillos, F. G., Pantoja Vallejo, A., & Berrios Aguayo, B. (2017). Creativity and physical fitness in primary school‐aged children. Pediatrics International, 59(11), 1194-1199.

Liang, Q., Niu, W., Cheng, L., & Qin, K. (2022). Creativity outside school: The influence of family background, perceived parenting, and after‐school activity on creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 56(1), 138-157.

Pierroux, P., Steier, R., & Ludvigsen, S. R. (2022). Group creativity in adolescence: Relational, material and institutional dimensions of creative collaboration. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 31(1), 107-137.

Randazzo, A. C., Muehlbach, M. J., Schweitzer, P. K., & Waish1, J. K. (1998). Cognitive function following acute sleep restriction in children ages 10–14. Sleep, 21(8), 861-868.

Romance, R., Nielsen-Rodríguez, A., Mendes, R. S., Dobado-Castañeda, J. C., & Dias, G. (2023). The influence of physical activity on the creativity of 10 and 11-year-old school children. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 48, 101295.

Sak, U., & Maker, C. J. (2006). Developmental variation in children's creative mathematical thinking as a function of schooling, age, and knowledge. Creativity Research Journal, 18(3), 279-291.

Sawyer, R. K. (2012). Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation. Oxford.

Schoevers, E. M., Leseman, P. P., & Kroesbergen, E. H. (2020). Enriching mathematics education with visual arts: Effects on elementary school students' ability in geometry and visual arts. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 18, 1613-1634.

Sen, R. S., & Sharma, N. (2013). The familial context of creativity: Patterns of nurturance in families of creative children. Psychological Studies, 58, 374-385.

Silvia, P. J., Christensen, A. P., & Cotter, K. N. (2016). Commentary: The Development of Creativity--Ability, Motivation, and Potential. New directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2016(151), 111–119.

Singha, S., Warr, M., Mishra, P., Henriksen, D., & Deep-Play Research Group. (2020). Playing with creativity across the lifespan: A conversation with Dr. Sandra Russ. TechTrends, 64, 550-554.

Ting, Y. S., & Yeh, Y. C. (2023). Growth-mindset intervention effects and the relationship of mindset, hope belief, and self-efficacy during creativity game-based learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-17.

Toivainen, T., Malanchini, M., Oliver, B. R., & Kovas, Y. (2017). Creative storytelling in childhood is related to exam performance at age 16. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS, 33(40), 375-384.

Van der Burgh, N. (2016). The effect of Gestalt play therapy in addressing symptoms associated with trauma in children in middle childhood (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).

van Dijk, M., Blom, E., Kroesbergen, E. H., & Leseman, P. P. (2020). The influence of situational cues on children's creativity in an alternative uses task and the moderating effect of selective attention. Journal of Intelligence, 8(4), 37.

Vezzali, L., Gocłowska, M. A., Crisp, R. J., & Stathi, S. (2016). On the relationship between cultural diversity and creativity in education: The moderating role of communal versus divisional mindset. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 21, 152-157.

Woolley, J. D., Bunce, L., & Boerger, E. A. (2020). Relations between imagination and creativity. Creativity and the Wandering Mind (181-203).