Measures and References: Decoding

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test - Revised Word Attack Subtest (Woodcock, 1998): Requires students to read pseudowords with performance scored using regular phonics rules

DIBELSDIBELS 8th Edition (University of Oregon, 2018): Measures abilities in alphabetic principles and phonics


Arrington, C. N., Kulesz, P. A., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., & Barnes, M. A. (2014). The contribution of attentional control and working memory to reading comprehension and decoding. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(5), 325-346.

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 327-336.

Bosse, M. L., Chaves, N., Largy, P., & Valdois, S. (2015). Orthographic learning during reading: the role of whole‐word visual processing. Journal of Research in Reading, 38(2), 141-158.

Byrne, B. (2005). Theories of learning to read. The Science of Reading: A Handbook, 104-119.

Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5-51.

Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J. (2001). DRC: a dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108(1), 204.

Connor, C. M., Son, S. H., Hindman, A. H., & Morrison, F. J. (2005). Teacher qualifications, classroom practices, family characteristics, and preschool experience: Complex effects on first graders' vocabulary and early reading outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 43(4), 343-375.

Dice, J. L., & Schwanenflugel, P. (2012). A structural model of the effects of preschool attention on kindergarten literacy. Reading and Writing, 25(9), 2205-2222.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Stahl, S. A., & Willows, D. M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel's meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 71(3), 393-447.

Garcia, J. R., & Cain, K. (2013). Decoding and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which reader and assessment characteristics influence the strength of the relationship in English. Review of Educational Research, 84(1), 74-111.

Good, R.H., & Kaminski, R. A. (Eds.) (2002). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills (6th ed.). Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.

Green, L. (2009). Morphology and literacy: Getting our heads in the game. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40(3), 283-285.

Kendeou, P., Van den Broek, P., White, M. J., & Lynch, J. S. (2009). Predicting reading comprehension in early elementary school: The independent contributions of oral language and decoding skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 765-778.

Kibby, M. Y. (2009). There are multiple contributors to the verbal short-term memory deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 15(5), 485-506.

Mathews, E. S., & O'Donnell, M. (2020). Phonological decoding and reading comprehension in deaf and hard-of-hearing children. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(2), 220-235.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vaughan, K., & Vermeulen, K. (2003). Relationship of morphology and other language skills to literacy skills in at-risk second-grade readers and at-risk fourth-grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 730-742.

Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What's meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.

Papadopoulos, T. C., Das, J. P., Parrila, R. K., & Kirby, J. R. (2003). Children at-risk for developing reading difficulties: A remediation study. School Psychology International, 24(3), 340-366.

Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992). Behavior assessment system for children (BASC). Circle Pines, MN: AGS.

Schwanenflugel, P. J., Hamilton, C. E., Neuharth-Pritchett, S., Restrepo, M. A., Bradley, B. A., & Webb, M.-Y. (2010). PAVEd for Success: An evaluation of a comprehensive literacy program for 4-year-old children. Journal of Literacy Research, 42, 227-275.

Shaul, S., & Nevo, E. (2015). Different speed of processing levels in childhood and their contribution to early literacy and reading abilities. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 32, 193-203.

University of Oregon, Center on Teaching and Learning (2018-2020). DIBELS 8th Technical Manual. Eugene, OR: Author.

Williams, K. T. (1997). Expressive vocabulary test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Woodcock, R.W. (1998). WRMT-R: Woodcock reading mastery tests revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.

Yanosky, D., Kamphaus, R. W., & Schwanenflugel, P. J. (2013). Psychometric properties of a proposed short form of the BASC teacher rating scale - Preschool. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(4), 351-362.