References: Direct Instruction: Problem Structures

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Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Franke, M. L., Levi, L., & Empson, S. B. (1999). Children's mathematics: Cognitively guided instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009-4060). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Kapur, M. (2014). Productive failure in learning math. Cognitive Science, 38(5), 1008-1022.

Karp, A., & Wasserman, N. (2014). Mathematics in middle and secondary school: a problem solving approach. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985). Mathematical problem solving. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

Silver, E. A. (1994). On mathematical problem posing. For the Learning of Mathematics, 14(1), 19-28.

Star, J. R., Caronongan, P., Foegen, A., Furgeson, J., Keating, B., Larson, M. R., Lyskawa, J., McCallum, W. G., Porath, J., & Zbiek, R. M. (2015). Teaching strategies for improving algebra knowledge in middle and high school students. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE).

Xin, Y. P., Jitendra, A. K., & Deatline-Buchman, A. (2005). Effects of mathematical word problem---Solving instruction on middle school students with learning problems. The Journal of Special Education, 39(3), 181-192.