Measures and References: Emotion

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Emotion Regulation Checklist (ER Checklist) (Shields & Cichetti, 1997): A parent questionnaire that includes an Emotion regulation scale

Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) (March, 2013): A self-report and parent-report measure of the presence of anxiety for students aged eight to 19

Scale for Assessing Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA) (Wu et al., 2012): A survey assessing both anxiety related to completing math problems and anxiety stemming from social and testing situations that require math for students in second and third grade


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Cargnelutti, E., Tomasetto, C., & Passolunghi, M. C. (2016). How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children. Cognition & Emotion, 31(4).

Denham, S. A. (1986). Social cognition, prosocial behavior, and emotion in preschoolers: Contextual validation. Child Development, 57, 194-201.

Fay-Stammbach, T., Hawes, D. J., & Meredith, P. (2017). Child maltreatment and emotion socialization: Associations with executive function in the preschool years. Child Abuse & Neglect, 64, 1-12.

Galdi, S., Cadinu, M., & Tomasetto, C. (2014). The roots of stereotype threat: When automatic associations disrupt girls' math performance. Child Development, 85(1), 250-263.

Ganley, C. M., Mingle, L. A., Ryan, A. M., Ryan, K., Vasilyeva, M., & Perry, M. (2013). An examination of stereotype threat effects on girls' mathematics performance. Developmental Psychology, 49(10), 1886-1897.

Garner, P. W., Jones, D. C., & Miner, J. L. (1994). Social competence among low-income preschoolers: Emotion socialization practices and social cognitive correlates. Child Development, 65, 622-637.

Gierl, M. J., & Bisanz, J. (1995). Anxieties and attitudes related to mathematics in grades 3 and 6. The Journal of Experimental Education, 63(2), 139-158.

Graziano, P. A., Reavis, R. D., Keane, S. P., & Calkins, S. D. (2007). The role of emotion regulation and children's early academic success. Journal of School Psychology, 45(1), 3-19.

Izard, C., Fine, S., Schultz, D., Mostow, A., Ackerman, B., & Youngstrom, E. (2001). Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 12(1), 18-23.

Kusche, C. A. (1985). The understanding of emotion concepts by deaf children: An assessment of an affective curriculum (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Lehmkuhl, G., Wiater, A., Mitschke, A., & Fricke-Oerkermann, L. (2008). Sleep disorders in children beginning school: Their causes and effects. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 105(47), 809-814.

Maloney, E. A., Schaeffer, M. W., & Beilock, S. L. (2013). Mathematics anxiety and stereotype threat: Shared mechanisms, negative consequences and promising interventions. Research in Mathematics Education, 15(2), 115-128.

Maloney, E. A., Ramirez, G., Gunderson, E. A., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2015). Intergenerational effects of parents ' math anxiety on children's math achievement and anxiety. Psychological Science, 26 (9), 1480-1488.

March, J.S. (2013). Multidimensional anxiety scale for children (2nd ed.). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-health Systems.

Schwartz, D., & Gorman, A. H. (2003). Community violence exposure and children's academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 163-173.

Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: The development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 906-916.

Sutherland, K. S., Lewis-Palmer, T., Stichter, J., & Morgan, P. L. (2008). Examining the influence of teacher behavior and classroom context on the behavioral and academic outcomes for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. The Journal of Special Education, 41(4), 223-233.

Ramirez, G., Gunderson, E. A., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2013). Math anxiety, working memory, and math achievement in early elementary school. Journal of Cognition and Development, 14(2), 187-202.

Ramirez, G., Chang, H., Maloney, E. A., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2016). On the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in early elementary school: The role of problem solving strategies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 83-100.

Rhoades, B. L., Warren, H. K., Domitrovich, C. E., & Greenberg, M. T. (2011). Examining the link between preschool social-emotional competence and first grade academic achievement: The role of attention skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26, 182-191.

Ribordy, S. C., Camras, L. A., Stefani, R., & Spaccarelli, S. (1988). Vignettes for emotion recognition research and affective therapy with children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17(4), 322-325.

Rubinsten, O., & Tannock, R. (2010). Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6(46), 1-13.

Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat deconstructed. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 14-18.

Schultz, D., & Izard, C. E. (1998). Assessment of children's emotion skills (ACES). Newark, DE: University of Delaware.

Torres, M. M., Domitrovich, C. E., & Bierman, K. L. (2016). Preschool interpersonal relationships predict kindergarten achievement: Mediated by gains in emotion knowledge. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 39, 44-52.

Vannest, K. J., Harrison, J. R., Temple-Harvey, K., Ramsey, L., & Parker, R. I. (2011). Improvement rate differences of academic interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Remedial and Special Education, 32(6), 521-534.

Vukovic, R. K., Kieffer, M. J., Bailey, S. P., & Harari, R. R. (2013). Mathematics anxiety in young children: Concurrent and longitudinal associations with mathematical performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 1-10.

Wu, S. S., Barth, M., Amin, H., Malcarne, V., & Menon, V. (2012). Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-11.

Young, C. B., Wu, S. S., & Menon, V. (2012). The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety. Psychological Science, 25(5), 492-501.