Measures and References: Estimation

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Estimation Task: A measure to assess computational Estimation during which students quickly give approximate answers to multi-digit addition and subtraction problems


Booth, J. L., & Siegler, R. S. (2006). Developmental and individual differences in pure numerical estimation. Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 189-201.

Dowker, A. (1997). Young children's addition estimates. Mathematical Cognition, 3(2), 141-154.

LeFevre, J.A., Greenham, S. L., & Waheed, N. (1993). The development of procedural and conceptual knowledge in computational estimation. Cognition and Instruction, 11(2), 95-132.

Rodriguez-Santos, J. M., Calleja, M., Garcia-Orza, J., Iza, M., & Damas, J. (2014). Quantity processing in deaf and hard of hearing children: Evidence from symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison tasks. American Annals of the Deaf, 159(1), 34-44.

Seethaler, P. M., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). The cognitive correlates of computational estimation skill among third-grade students. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 21(4), 233-243.