Measures and References: Genre Knowledge

Return to Genre Knowledge factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Common Core English Language Arts Standards for Writing: Provides standards to assess students' mastery of macrostructure and microstructure elements of narrative, persuasive, and informative writing

Common Core English Language Arts Standards for Reading: Literature and Reading: Informational Text: Provides standards to assess students' mastery of reading different genres


Beers, S. F., & Nagy, W. E. (2011). Writing development in four genres from grades three to seven: Syntactic complexity and genre differentiation. Reading and Writing, 24(2), 183-202.

Berman, R. A., & Nir-Sagiv, B. (2007). Comparing narrative and expository text construction across adolescence: A developmental paradox. Discourse Processes, 43(2), 79-120.

Boons, T., De Raeve, L., Langereis, M., Peeraer, L., Wouters, J., & Van Wieringen, A. (2013). Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 2008-2022.

Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children's reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31-42.

Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and Written Language Scale. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2010). English language arts standards. Retrieved April, 11, 2017.

Drijbooms, E., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2017). How executive functions predict development in syntactic complexity of narrative writing in the upper elementary grades. Reading and Writing, 30(1), 209-231.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2005). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III-NL. Nederlandse versie Liesbeth Schlichting. Handleiding. Amsterdam: Harcourt Test Publishers.

Geelhoed, J. W., & Reitsma, P. (1999). PI-dictee. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Kort, W., Schittekatte, M., & Compaan, E. (2010). CELF-4-NL j Test voor diagnose en evaluatie van taalproblemen (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Pearson.

Koutsoftas, A. D., & Gray, S. (2012). Comparison of narrative and expository writing in students with and without language-learning disabilities. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43(4), 395-409.

Lesaux, N. K., Kieffer, M. J., Kelley, J. G., & Harris, J. R. (2014). Effects of academic vocabulary instruction for linguistically diverse adolescents: Evidence from a randomized field trial. American Educational Research Journal, 51(6), 1159-1194.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K. & Dreyer, L. G. (2000). Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

Martin, N. A., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

McCutchen, D. (2000). Knowledge, processing, and working memory: Implications for a theory of writing. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 13-23.

McNamara, D. S., Ozuru, Y., & Floyd, R. G. (2011). Comprehension challenges in the fourth grade: The roles of text cohesion, text genre, and readers' prior knowledge. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 229-257.

Olinghouse, N. G., Graham, S., & Gillespie, A. (2015). The relationship of discourse and topic knowledge to fifth graders' writing performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 391-406.

Olinghouse, N. G., & Leaird, J. T. (2009). The relationship between measures of vocabulary and narrative writing quality in second-and fourth-grade students. Reading and Writing, 22(5), 545-565.