References: Graphic Organizers

Return to Graphic Organizers strategy page.


Alvermann, D. E. (2002). Effective literacy instruction for adolescents. Journal of Literacy Research, 34(2), 189-208.

Bruce Taylor, D., Mraz, M., Nichols, W. D., Rickelman, R. J., & Wood, K. D. (2009). Using explicit instruction to promote vocabulary learning for struggling readers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2-3), 205-220.

Bulgren, J., Deshler, D. D., & Lenz, B. K. (2007). Engaging adolescents with LD in higher order thinking about history concepts using integrated content enhancement routines. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 121-133.

Escobedo, J. (2012). Graphic organizers for retention of basic math concepts for adults. [Unpublished master's thesis] California State University, Sacramento.

Hall, T., & Strangman, N. (2002). Graphic organizers. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved from

Helms, K. T., & Libertz, D. (2014). When service members with traumatic brain injury become students: Methods to advance learning. Adult Learning, 25(1), 11-19.

MacArthur, C. A., & Lembo, L. (2009). Strategy instruction in writing for adult literacy learners. Reading and Writing, 22(9), 1021-1039.

Marietta City Schools. (2012). Cognitive functioning and psychological processing definitions: Areas of impact, and recommended strategies/accommodations. Retrieved from

Parrish, B., & Johnson, K. (2010). Promoting learner transitions to postsecondary education and work: Developing academic readiness skills from the beginning. Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved from_ www. cal. org/caelanetwork/resources/transitions. html_, 5(26), 12.

Robinson, D. H., Katayama, A. D., Beth, A., Odom, S., Hsieh, Y. P., & Vanderveen, A. (2006). Increasing text comprehension and graphic note taking using a partial graphic organizer. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(2), 103-111.

Roozbeh, E., Rostami Abousaidi, A. A., & Karbalaei, A. (2016). The role of schema-theory based on background knowledge and graphic organizer on enhancing EFL learners' listening comprehension. Journal of Advances in English Language Teaching, 4(6), 82-94.

Singleton, S. M., & Filce, H. G. (2015). Graphic organizers for secondary students with learning disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 48(2), 110-117.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Risemberg, R. (1994). Investigating self-regulatory processes and perceptions of self-efficacy in writing by college students. Student Motivation, Cognition, and Learning, 239-256.