Measures and References: Hearing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Pure-Tone Audiometry: Assesses how well an individual can hear sounds at different pitches (frequencies) by having a student wear headphones and indicate when they hear a sound


Boons, T., De Raeve, L., Langereis, M., Peeraer, L., Wouters, J., & Van Wieringen, A. (2013). Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 2008-2022.

Briscoe, J., Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2001). Phonological processing, language, and literacy: A comparison of children with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss and those with specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(3), 329-340.

Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., Whetton, C., & Pintilie, D. (1982). British Picture Vocabulary Scale-long form. Windsor, U.K.: NFER-Nelson.

German, D. J. (1989). Test of Word Finding. Chicago: Riverside Publishing Company.

Kort, W., Schittekatte, M., & Compaan, E. (2010). CELF-4-NL j Test voor diagnose en evaluatie van taalproblemen. Amsterdam: Pearson.

Martin, N. A., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2001). Production of English finite verb morphology: A comparison of SLI and mild-moderate hearing impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 165-179.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2002). Does impaired grammatical comprehension provide evidence for an innate grammar module? Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 247-268.

Park, J., Lombardino, L. J., & Ritter, M. (2013). Phonology matters: A comprehensive investigation of reading and spelling skills of school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. A__merican Annals of the Deaf, 158(1), 20-40.

Pittman, A. L. (2008). Short-term word-learning rate in children with normal hearing and children with hearing loss in limited and extended high-frequency bandwidths. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51(3), 785-797.

Punch, R., & Hyde, M. B. (2011). Communication, psychosocial, and educational outcomes of children with cochlear implants and challenges remaining for professionals and parents. International Journal of Otolaryngology, 2011, 1-10.

Rust, J., Golombok, S., & Trickey, G. (1993). Wechsler Objective Reading Dimensions. Sidcup, U.K.: Psychological Corporation.

Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75(10), 1313-1317.

Zatorre, R. J., & Belin, P. (2001). Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 11(10), 946-953.