Measures and References: Hearing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Pure-Tone Audiometry: Assesses how well an individual can hear sounds at different pitches (frequencies). The student is asked to wear headphones and indicate when they hear a sound.


Bandurski, M., & Gałkowski, T. (2004). The development of analogical reasoning in deaf children and their parents' communication mode. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(2), 153-175.

Boons, T., De Raeve, L., Langereis, M., Peeraer, L., Wouters, J., & Van Wieringen, A. (2013). Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 2008-2022.

Bull, R., Marschark, M., Davidson, W., Murphy, D., Nordmann, E., Remelt, S., & Sapere, P. (2010). Numerical approximation and math achievement in deaf children. In poster presentation at the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf, Vancouver, Canada.

Delage, H., & Tuller, L. (2007). Language development and mild-to-moderate hearing loss: Does language normalize with age? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(5), 1300-1313.

Frostad, P. (1999). Deaf children's use of cognitive strategies in simple arithmetic problems. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 40(2), 129-153.

Horn, D. L., Davis, R. A., Pisoni, D. B., & Miyamoto, R. T. (2004). Visual attention, behavioral inhibition and speech/language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. In International Congress Series, 1273, 332-335. Elsevier.

Hyde, M., Zevenbergen, R., & Power, D. (2003). Deaf and hard of hearing students' performance on arithmetic word problems. American Annals of the Deaf, 148(1), 56-64.

Kemp, A., Skrebneva, I., & Kruger, D. (2011). Supporting Deaf Learners in Inclusive Education Settings in South Africa._ International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities & Nations, 11_(1).

Kritzer, K. L. (2009). Barely started and already left behind: A descriptive analysis of the mathematics ability demonstrated by young deaf children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(4), 409-421.

Montgomery, J. W., & Windsor, J. (2007). Examining the language performances of children with and without specific language impairment: Contributions of phonological short-term memory and speed of processing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(3), 778-797.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2002). Does impaired grammatical comprehension provide evidence for an innate grammar module? Applied Psycholinguistics, 23(2), 247-268.

Pixner, S., Leyrer, M., & Moeller, K. (2014). Number processing and arithmetic skills in children with cochlear implants. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1479.

Punch, R., & Hyde, M. B. (2011). Communication, psychosocial, and educational outcomes of children with cochlear implants and challenges remaining for professionals and parents. International Journal of Otolaryngology, 2011, 1-10.

Rieffe, C. (2012). Awareness and regulation of emotions in deaf children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(4), 477-492.

Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75(10), 1313-1317.

Weiner, M. T., Day, S. J., & Galvan, D. (2013). Deaf and hard of hearing students' perspectives on bullying and school climate. American Annals of the Deaf, 158(3), 334-343.