Measures and References: Hearing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Pure-Tone Audiometry: Assesses how well an individual can hear sounds at different pitches (frequencies) by having a student wear headphones and indicate when they hear a sound


Brenneman, K., Stevenson-Boyd, J., & Frede, E. C. (2009). Math and science in preschool: Policies and practice._ Preschool Policy Brief, 19_, 1-12.

Bull, R., Marschark, M., Davidson, W. A., Murphy, D., Nordmann, E., Remelt, S., & Sapere, P. (2010). Numerical approximation and maths achievement in deaf children. In International Congress on the Education of the Deaf.

Corina, D., & Singleton, J. (2009). Developmental social cognitive neuroscience: Insights from deafness. Child Development, 80(4), 952-967.

Coryell, J., & Holcomb, T. K. (1997). The use of sign language and sign systems in facilitating the language acquisition and communication of deaf students._ Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 28_(4), 384-394.

Daza, M. T., Phillips-Silver, J., del Mar Ruiz-Cuadra, M., & Lopez-Lopez, F. (2014). Language skills and nonverbal cognitive processes associated with reading comprehension in deaf children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(12), 3526-3533.

Delage, H., & Tuller, L. (2007). Language development and mild-to-moderate hearing loss: Does language normalize with age? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(5), 1300-1313.

Freel, B. L., Clark, M. D., Anderson, M. L., Gilbert, G. L., Musyoka, M. M., & Hauser, P. C. (2011). Deaf individuals' bilingual abilities: American Sign Language proficiency, reading skills, and family characteristics. Psychology, 2(01), 18.

Greco, V., Beresford, B., & Sutherland, H. (2009). Deaf Children and Young People's Experiences of Using Specialist Mental Health Services. Children & Society, 23(6), 455-469.

Kritzer, K. I. (2009). Barely started and already left behind: A descriptive analysis of the mathematics ability demonstrated by young deaf children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(4), 409-421.

Leybaert, J., & Van Cutsem, M.N. (2002). Counting in sign language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81(4), 482-501.

Mayberry, R. I. (1998). The critical period for language acquisition and the deaf child's language

comprehension: A psycholinguistic approach. BULLETIN D AUDIOPHONOLOGIE, 14, 349-360.

Moore, D. R., Ferguson, M. A., Edmondson-Jones, A. M., Ratib, S., & Riley, A. (2010). Nature of auditory processing disorder in children._ Pediatrics, 126_(2), e382-e390.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P., Burman, D., Bell, D., Evans, D., & Hallett, D. (2009). Deaf children's informal knowledge of multiplicative reasoning. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(2), 260-277.

Pisoni, D. B., & Cleary, M. (2003). Measures of working memory span and verbal rehearsal speed in deaf children after cochlear implantation. Ear and Hearing, 24(1 Suppl), 106S.

Pixner, S., Leyrer, M., & Moeller, K. (2014). Number processing and arithmetic skills in children with cochlear implants. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1479.

Ramani, G. B., & Eason, S. H. (2015). It all adds up: Learning early math through play and games. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(8), 27-32.

Rodriguez-Santos, J. M., Calleja, M., Garcia-Orza, J., Iza, M., & Damas, J. (2014). Quantity processing in deaf and hard of hearing children: Evidence from symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison tasks. American Annals of the Deaf, 159(1), 34-44.

Stobbart, C., & Alant, E. (2008). Home-based literacy experiences of severely to profoundly deaf preschoolers and their hearing parents. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 20(2), 139-153.

Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75(10), 1313-1317.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) database, retrieved January 2, 2019, from

Westwood, P. S. (1997). Commonsense methods for children with special needs: Strategies for the regular classroom. Psychology Press.

Wiefferink, C. H., Rieffe, C., Ketelaar, L., De Raeve, L., & Frijns, J. H. (2013). Emotion understanding in deaf children with a cochlear implant. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(2), 175-186.

Zarfaty, Y., Nunes, T., Bryant, P. (2004). The performance of young deaf children in spatial and temporal number tasks, Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(3), 315-326.