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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.
Pure-Tone Audiometry: Assesses how well an individual can hear sounds at different pitches (frequencies) by having a student wear headphones and indicate when they hear a sound
Brenneman, K., Stevenson-Boyd, J., & Frede, E. C. (2009). Math and science in preschool: Policies and practice._ Preschool Policy Brief, 19_, 1-12.
Bull, R., Marschark, M., Davidson, W. A., Murphy, D., Nordmann, E., Remelt, S., & Sapere, P. (2010). Numerical approximation and maths achievement in deaf children. In International Congress on the Education of the Deaf.
Corina, D., & Singleton, J. (2009). Developmental social cognitive neuroscience: Insights from deafness. Child Development, 80(4), 952-967.
Coryell, J., & Holcomb, T. K. (1997). The use of sign language and sign systems in facilitating the language acquisition and communication of deaf students._ Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 28_(4), 384-394.
Daza, M. T., Phillips-Silver, J., del Mar Ruiz-Cuadra, M., & Lopez-Lopez, F. (2014). Language skills and nonverbal cognitive processes associated with reading comprehension in deaf children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(12), 3526-3533.
Delage, H., & Tuller, L. (2007). Language development and mild-to-moderate hearing loss: Does language normalize with age? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(5), 1300-1313.
Freel, B. L., Clark, M. D., Anderson, M. L., Gilbert, G. L., Musyoka, M. M., & Hauser, P. C. (2011). Deaf individuals' bilingual abilities: American Sign Language proficiency, reading skills, and family characteristics. Psychology, 2(01), 18.
Greco, V., Beresford, B., & Sutherland, H. (2009). Deaf Children and Young People's Experiences of Using Specialist Mental Health Services. Children & Society, 23(6), 455-469.
Kritzer, K. I. (2009). Barely started and already left behind: A descriptive analysis of the mathematics ability demonstrated by young deaf children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(4), 409-421.
Leybaert, J., & Van Cutsem, M.N. (2002). Counting in sign language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81(4), 482-501.
Mayberry, R. I. (1998). The critical period for language acquisition and the deaf child's language
comprehension: A psycholinguistic approach. BULLETIN D AUDIOPHONOLOGIE, 14, 349-360.
Moore, D. R., Ferguson, M. A., Edmondson-Jones, A. M., Ratib, S., & Riley, A. (2010). Nature of auditory processing disorder in children._ Pediatrics, 126_(2), e382-e390.
Nunes, T., Bryant, P., Burman, D., Bell, D., Evans, D., & Hallett, D. (2009). Deaf children's informal knowledge of multiplicative reasoning. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(2), 260-277.
Pisoni, D. B., & Cleary, M. (2003). Measures of working memory span and verbal rehearsal speed in deaf children after cochlear implantation. Ear and Hearing, 24(1 Suppl), 106S.
Pixner, S., Leyrer, M., & Moeller, K. (2014). Number processing and arithmetic skills in children with cochlear implants. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1479.
Ramani, G. B., & Eason, S. H. (2015). It all adds up: Learning early math through play and games. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(8), 27-32.
Rodriguez-Santos, J. M., Calleja, M., Garcia-Orza, J., Iza, M., & Damas, J. (2014). Quantity processing in deaf and hard of hearing children: Evidence from symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison tasks. American Annals of the Deaf, 159(1), 34-44.
Stobbart, C., & Alant, E. (2008). Home-based literacy experiences of severely to profoundly deaf preschoolers and their hearing parents. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 20(2), 139-153.
Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75(10), 1313-1317.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) database, retrieved January 2, 2019, from https://www2.ed.gov/programs/osepidea/618-data/state-level-data-files/index.html#bcc.
Westwood, P. S. (1997). Commonsense methods for children with special needs: Strategies for the regular classroom. Psychology Press.
Wiefferink, C. H., Rieffe, C., Ketelaar, L., De Raeve, L., & Frijns, J. H. (2013). Emotion understanding in deaf children with a cochlear implant. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(2), 175-186.
Zarfaty, Y., Nunes, T., Bryant, P. (2004). The performance of young deaf children in spatial and temporal number tasks, Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(3), 315-326.
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