Measures and References: Hearing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Pure-Tone Audiometry: Assesses how well an individual can hear sounds at different pitches (frequencies) by having a student wear headphones and indicate when they hear a sound


Bull, R., Marschark, M., Davidson, W. A., Murphy, D., Nordmann, E., Remelt, S., & Sapere, P. (2010). Numerical approximation and maths achievement in deaf children. In International Congress on the Education of the Deaf.Delage, H., & Tuller, L. (2007). Language development and mild-to-moderate hearing loss: Does language normalize with age? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(5), 1300-1313.

Kritzer, K. I. (2009). Barely started and already left behind: A descriptive analysis of the mathematics ability demonstrated by young deaf children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(4), 409-421.

Leybaert, J., & Van Cutsem, M.N. (2002). Counting in sign language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81(4), 482-501.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P., Burman, D., Bell, D., Evans, D., & Hallett, D. (2009). Deaf children's informal knowledge of multiplicative reasoning. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(2), 260-277.

Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75(10), 1313-1317.