Measures and References: Hearing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Pure-Tone Audiometry: Assesses how well an individual can hear sounds at different pitches (frequencies) by having a student wear headphones and indicate when they hear a sound


Alvarado, J. M., Puente, A., & Herrera, V. (2008). Visual and phonological coding in working memory and orthographic skills of deaf children using Chilean Sign Language. American Annals of the Deaf, 152(5), 467-479.

Antia, S. D., Stinson, M. S., & Gaustad, M. G. (2002). Developing membership in the education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in inclusive settings. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(3), 214-229.

Bauman, S., & Pero, H. (2011). Bullying and cyberbullying among deaf students and their hearing peers: An exploratory study._ Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16_(2), 236-253.

Boons, T., De Raeve, L., Langereis, M., Peeraer, L., Wouters, J., & Van Wieringen, A. (2013). Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 2008-2022.

Briscoe, J., Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2001). Phonological processing, language, and literacy: A comparison of children with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss and those with specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(3), 329-340.

Ching, T.Y., Crowe, K., Martin, V., Day, J., Mahler, N., Youn, S., & Orsini, J. (2010). Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(2), 124-131.

Delage, H., & Tuller, L. (2007). Language development and mild-to-moderate hearing loss: Does language normalize with age? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(5), 1300-1313.

DesJardin, J. L., & Ambrose, S. E. (2010). The importance of the home literacy environment for developing literacy skills in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Young Exceptional Children, 13(5), 28-44.

Edwards, L., Figueras, B., Mellanby, J., & Langdon, D. (2011). Verbal and spatial analogical reasoning in deaf and hearing children: the role of grammar and vocabulary. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16(2), 189-197.

Fagan, M. K. (2016). Spoken vocabulary development in deaf children with and without cochlear implants. The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies in Language, 132-145.

Greco, V., Beresford, B., & Sutherland, H. (2009). Deaf Children and Young People's Experiences of Using Specialist Mental Health Services. Children & Society, 23(6), 455-469.

Hansson, K., Forsberg, J., Löfqvist, A., Mäki-Torkko, E., & Sahlén, B. (2004). Working memory and novel word learning in children with hearing impairment and children with specific language impairment. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 39(3), 401-422.

Harris, M. S., Kronenberger, W. G., Gao, S., Hoen, H. M., Miyamoto, R. T., & Pisoni, D. B. (2013). Verbal short-term memory development and spoken language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. Ear and Hearing, 34(2), 179.

Horn, D. L., Davis, R. A., Pisoni, D. B., & Miyamoto, R. T. (2004). Visual attention, behavioral inhibition and speech/language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. In International Congress Series, 1273, 332-335. Elsevier.

Mathews, E. S., & O'Donnell, M. (2020). Phonological decoding and reading comprehension in deaf and hard-of-hearing children. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(2), 220-235.

Meristo, M., Falkman, K. W., Hjelmquist, E., Tedoldi, M., Surian, L., & Siegal, M. (2007). Language access and theory of mind reasoning: evidence from deaf children in bilingual and oralist environments. Developmental Psychology, 43(5), 1156.

Moeller, M. P., Tomblin, J. B., Yoshinaga-Itano, C., Connor, C. M., & Jerger, S. (2007). Current state of knowledge: Language and literacy of children with hearing impairment. Ear and Hearing, 28(6), 740-753.

Montgomery, J. W., & Windsor, J. (2007). Examining the language performances of children with and without specific language impairment: Contributions of phonological short-term memory and speed of processing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(3), 778-797.

Nielsen, D. C., & Luetke-Stahlman, B. (2002). Phonological awareness: One key to the reading proficiency of deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 147(3), 11-19.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2001). Production of English finite verb morphology: A comparison of SLI and mild-moderate hearing impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 165-179.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2002). Does impaired grammatical comprehension provide evidence for an innate grammar module? Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 247-268.

Stelmachowicz, P. G., Pittman, A. L., Hoover, B. M., & Lewis, D. E. (2004). Novel-word learning in children with normal hearing and hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 25, 47-56.

Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75(10), 1313-1317.

Vohr, B., Jodoin-Krauzyk, J., Tucker, R., Topol, D., Johnson, M. J., Ahlgren, M., & Pierre, L. (2011). Expressive vocabulary of children with hearing loss in the first 2 years of life: Impact of early intervention. Journal of Perinatology, 31(4), 274-280.