Measures and References: Inferencing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Think Aloud Protocol (Caldwell & Leslie, 2010): As students read a text they are prompted, either throughout their reading or at predetermined stop points, to share their thinking about the text. Responses are recorded, transcribed, and coded for a variety of reading comprehension strategies, including Inferencing.


Caldwell, J., & Leslie, L. (2010). Thinking aloud in expository text: Processes and outcomes. Journal of Literacy Research, 42(3), 308-340.

Cook, A.E. & O'Brien, E.J. (2017). Fundamentals of inferencing during reading. Language and Linguistics Compass, 11(7), 1-16.

Doran, J., & Anderson, A. (2003). Inferencing skills of adolescent readers who are hearing impaired. Journal of Research in Reading, 26(3), 256-266.

Kispal, A., & National Foundation for Educational Research. (2008). Effective teaching of inference skills for reading. Literature Review. Research Report DCSF-RR031. National Foundation for Educational Research.

Kolić-Vehovec, S., Zubković, B. R., & Pahljina-Reinić, R. (2014). Development of metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading in early adolescence: The effect on reading comprehension. Psychological Topics, 23(1), 77-98.

Lee, C.D., & Spratley, A. (2010). Reading in the disciplines: The challenges of adolescent literacy. New York, NY: Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Letts, C., & Leinonen, E. (2001). Comprehension of inferential meaning in language-impaired and language normal children. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 36(3), 307-328.

Moje, E.B., Young, J.B., Readence, J.E., & Moore, D.W. (2000). Reinventing adolescent literacy for new time: Perennial and millennial issues. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 45(5), 400-410.

Moran, C., & Gillon, G. (2005). Inference comprehension of adolescents with traumatic brain injury: A working memory hypothesis. Brain Injury, 19(10), 743-751.

Norbury, C. F. (2004). Factors supporting idiom comprehension in children with communication disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(5), 1179-1193.

Recht, D.R. & Leslie, R. (1988). Effect of prior knowledge on good and poor readers' memory of text. Journal of Educational Psychology 80(1), 16-20.

Shahar-Yames, D., & Prior, A. (2018). The challenge and the opportunity of lexical inferencing in language minority students. Reading and Writing, 31(5), 1109-1132.

van den Broek, P., Lorch, R. F., Jr., Linderholm, T., & Gustafson, M. (2001). The effects of readers' goals on inference generation and memory for texts. Memory & Cognition, 29(8), 1081-1087.