Measures and References: Inhibition

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (Gioia et al, 2000): Parent and teacher questionnaire to assess executive function, including Inhibition, in students aged five to 18 years


Aguilar-Pardo, D., Martinez-Arias, R., & Colmenares, F. (2013). The role of inhibition in young children's altruistic behaviour. Cognitive Processing, 14(3), 301-307.

Altemeier, L. E., Abbott, R. D., & Berninger, V. W. (2008). Executive functions for reading and writing in typical literacy development and dyslexia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(5), 588-606.

Barac, R., Bialystok, E., Castro, D. C., & Sanchez, M. (2014). The cognitive development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 699-714.

Barkley, R. (1997). Behavioural inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65-94.

Barkley, R. (2003). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In E. J. Mash & R. Barkley (Eds.), Child Psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 75-143). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Cook, C. R., & Nagy, W. (2016). Relationships of attention and executive functions to oral language, reading, and writing skills and systems in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1-16.

Bialystok, E., & Senman, L. (2004). Executive processes in appearance-reality tasks: The role of inhibition of attention and symbolic representation. Child Development, 75(2), 562-579.

Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647-663.

Cain, K. (2006). Individual differences in children's memory and reading comprehension: An investigation of semantic and inhibitory deficits. Memory, 14(5), 553-569.

Carlson, S. M., & Wang, T. S. (2007). Inhibitory control and emotion regulation in preschool children. Cognitive Development, 22(4), 489-510.

de Ribaupierre, A. (2002). Working memory and attentional processes across the lifespan. [The 2nd Tsukuba International Conference on Memory.] In P. Graf & N. Ohta (Eds.), Lifespan Development of Human Memory (pp. 59-80). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Delis, D. C., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J. H. (2001). The Delis-Kaplan executive function system: Examiner's manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

DePrince, A. P., Weinzierl, K. M., & Combs, M. D. (2009). Executive function performance and trauma exposure in a community sample of children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(6), 353-361.

Dice, J. L., & Schwanenflugel, P. (2012). A structural model of the effects of preschool attention on kindergarten literacy. Reading and Writing, 25(9), 2205-2222.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Eriksen, B.A., & Eriksen, C.W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16(1), 143-149.

Foy, J. G., & Mann, V. A. (2013). Bilingual children show advantages in nonverbal auditory executive function task. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(6), 717-729.

Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: Performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53(2), 129-153.

Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). Early childhood environment rating scale. Revised edition. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.

Horn, D. L., Davis, R. A., Pisoni, D. B., & Miyamoto, R. T. (2004). Visual attention, behavioral inhibition and speech/language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. In International Congress Series, 1273, 332-335. Elsevier.

Kegel, C. A. T., van der Kooy-Hofland, V. A. C., & Bus, A. G. (2009). Improving early phoneme skills with a computer program: Differential effects of regulatory skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(4), 549-554.

McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers' literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947-959.

Morton, J. B., & Harper, S. N. (2007). What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage. Developmental Science, 10(6), 719-726.

Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom assessment scoring system [CLASS] manual: Pre-K. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Reiter, A., Tucha, O., & Lange, K. W. (2005). Executive functions in children with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 11(2), 116-131.

Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children: 2nd edition (BASC-2). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2002). Sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and behavior problems in school‐age children. Child Development, 73(2), 405-417.

Schwanenflugel, P. J., Hamilton, C. E., Neuharth-Pritchett, S., Restrepo, M. A., Bradley, B. A., & Webb, M.-Y. (2010). PAVEd for Success: An evaluation of a comprehensive literacy program for 4-year-old children. Journal of Literacy Research, 42, 227-275.

Smith, M. W., Dickinson, D. K., Sangeorge, A., & Anastasopoulos, L. (2002). User's guide to the early language & literacy classroom observation toolkit: Research edition. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Weiland, C., Ulvestad, K., Sachs, J., & Yoshikawa, H. (2013). Associations between classroom quality and children's vocabulary and executive function skills in an urban public prekindergarten program. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(2), 199-209.

Williams, K. T. (1997). Expressive vocabulary test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Williford, A. P., Vick Whittaker, J. E., Vitiello, V. E., & Downer, J. T. (2013). Children's engagement within the preschool classroom and their development of self-regulation. Early Education and Development, 24(2), 162-187.

Yanosky, D., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2013). Psychometric properties of a proposed short form of the BASC teacher rating scale - Preschool. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(4), 351-362.