Measures and References: Language Skills

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

The Phonological Awareness Test 2 (PAT 2) (Robertson & Salter, 2007): Measures all aspects of Phonological Awareness, including rhyming and the ability to detect and manipulate phonemes

Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL) (Lonigan, Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 2007): Measures emergent literacy, including print knowledge, vocabulary, and phonological awareness.


Alloway, T. P., & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106(1), 20-29.

Donlan, C., Cowan, R., Newton, E. J., & Lloyd, D. (2007). The Role of Language in Mathematical Development: Evidence from children with Specific Language Impairments. Cognition, 103(1), 23-33.

Ehri, L. C. (2014). Orthographic mapping in the acquisition of sight word reading, spelling memory, and vocabulary learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 5-21.

Hartas, D. (2012). Children's social behaviour, language and literacy in early years. Oxford Review of Education, 38(3), 357-376.

Hecht, S. A., Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (2001). The relations between phonological processing abilities and emerging individual differences in mathematical computation skills: A longitudinal study from second to fifth grades. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79, 192-227.

Krajewski, K., & Schneider, W. (2009). Exploring the impact of phonological awareness, visual-spatial working memory, and preschool quantity-number competencies on mathematics achievement in elementary school: Findings from a 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103(4), 516-531.

Lonigan, C.J., Wagner, R.K., & Torgesen, J.K. (2007). Test of Preschool Early Language. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Moll, K., Snowling, M. J., Gobel, S.M., & Hulme, C. (2015). Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls. Learning and Instruction, 38, 53-62.

Morgan, P., Farkas, G., Tufis, P. & Sperling, R. (2008) Are reading and behavioral problems risk factors for each other? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(5), 417-436.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2001). Production of English finite verb morphology: A comparison of SLI and mild-moderate hearing impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 165-179.

Praet, M., Titeca, D., Ceulemans, A., & Desoete, A. (2013). Language in the prediction of arithmetics in kindergarten and grade 1. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 90-96.

Purpura, D. J., Hume, L. E., Sims, D. M., & Lonigan, C. J. (2011). Early literacy and early numeracy: The value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110(4), 647-658.

Purpura, D. J., & Reid, E. E. (2016). Mathematics and language: Individual and group differences in mathematical language skills in young children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 259-268.

Robertson, C, & Salter, W. (2007). The Phonological Awareness Test, Second edition (PAT-2). East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

Schrank, F. A., & McGrew, K. S. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson® III. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Sharkey, P. (2010). The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(26), 11733-11738.

Simmons, F. R., & Singleton, C. (2008). Do weak phonological representations impact on arithmetic development? A review of research into arithmetic and dyslexia. Dyslexia, 14, 77-94.

Swanson, H. L., Howard, C. B., & Saez, L. (2006). Do different components of working memory underlie different subgroups of reading disabilities? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), 252-269.

Vukovic, R. K., & Lesaux, N. K. (2013). The language of mathematics : Investigating the ways language counts for children's mathematical development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115(2), 227-244.

Vukovic, R. K., & Lesaux, N. K. (2013b). The relationship between linguistic skills and arithmetic knowledge. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 87-91.

Wiig, E. H., Secord, W., & Semel, E. M. (2004). CELF Preschool 2: Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Preschool. Pearson/PsychCorp.