Measures and References: Learner Mindset

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Academic Self-efficacy (Schmitt, 2008): Self-report questionnaire reflecting learners' self-efficacy toward academic performance in college

Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) Readiness to Learn: (Smith et al., 2015): Self-report questionnaire assessing adults' interest and attitude toward learning new things


Cavanagh, T. M., Leeds, C., & Peters, J. M. (2019). Increasing oral communication self-efficacy improves oral communication and general academic performance. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 82(4), 440-457.

Cho, M. H., & Shen, D. (2013). Self-regulation in online learning. Distance Education, 34(3), 290-301.

Comings, J. P. (2008). Student persistence in adult literacy and numeracy programs. In Tracking adult literacy and numeracy skills (pp. 180-196). Routledge.

Compton-Lilly, C. (2009). Disparate Reading Identities of Adult Students in one GED Program. Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journal, 3(1), 34-43.

Daly-Cano, M., Vaccaro, A., & Newman, B. (2015). College Student Narratives about Learning and Using Self-Advocacy Skills. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 28(2), 213-227.

Deemer, E. D., Thoman, D. B., Chase, J. P., & Smith, J. L. (2014). Feeling the threat: Stereotype threat as a contextual barrier to women's science career choice intentions. Journal of Career Development, 41(2), 141-158.

Drayton, B. E. (2012). Literacy and identity: Reflections of six African American males in an adult literacy program (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Pennsylvania State University.

Field, J. (2011). Adult learning, health and well-being-changing lives. Adult Learner, 13-25.

Greenberg, D., Wise, J., Frijters, J., Morris, R., Fredrick, L., Rodrigo, V., & Hall, S. (2013). Persisters and nonpersisters: Identifying who stays and who leaves from adult literacy interventions. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26(4), 495-514.

Guntzviller, L. M., King, A. J., Jensen, J. D., & Davis, L. A. (2017). Self-efficacy, health literacy, and nutrition and exercise behaviors in a low-income, Hispanic population. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 19(2), 489-493.

Hammond, C., & Feinstein, L. (2005). The effects of adult learning on self-efficacy. London Review of Education, 3(3), 265-287.

Hastings, E. C., & West, R. L. (2011). Goal orientation and self-efficacy in relation to memory in adulthood. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18(4), 471-493.

Hollis-Sawyer, L. (2011). A math-related decrement stereotype threat reaction among older nontraditional college learners. Educational Gerontology, 37(4), 292-306.

Jameson, M. M., & Fusco, B. R. (2014). Math anxiety, math self-concept, and math self-efficacy in adult learners compared to traditional undergraduate students. Adult Education Quarterly, 64(4), 306-322.

Jones, L. Ø., Varberg, J., Manger, T., Eikeland, O. J., & Asbjørnsen, A. (2012). Reading and writing self-efficacy of incarcerated adults. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(3), 343-349.

Lucey, K. (2018). The effect of motivation on student persistence in online higher education: A phenomenological study of how adult learners experience motivation in a web-based distance learning environment. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Duquesne University

Lundberg, C. A., McIntire, D. D., & Creasman, C. T. (2008). Sources of social support and self‐efficacy for adult students. Journal of College Counseling, 11(1), 58-72.

Meder, P. (2000). The effect of continuous goal setting on persistence in math classrooms. Focus on Basics, 4(A), 7-10.

Nalavany, B. A., Logan, J. M., & Carawan, L. W. (2017). The relationship between emotional experience with dyslexia and work self‐efficacy among adults with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 24(1), 17-32.

O'Neill, S., & Thomson, M. M. (2013). Supporting academic persistence in low‐skilled adult learners. Support for Learning, 28(4), 162-172.

Price, J., Hertzog, C., & Dunlosky, J. (2010). Self-regulated learning in younger and older adults: Does aging affect metacognitive control?. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 17(3), 329-359.

Prins, E., & Van Horn, B. (2012). Adult learning in family literacy. In B.H. Wasik (Ed.), Handbook of Family Literacy (p. 166-180). Routledge.

Quigley, B. A., & Uhland, R. L. (2000). Retaining adult learners in the first three critical weeks: A quasi-experimental model for use in ABE programs. Adult Basic Education, 10(2), 55.

Rogers, R. (2004). Storied selves: A critical discourse analysis of adult learners' literate lives. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(3), 272-305.

Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2003). Adult learners in the classroom. New Directions for Student Services, 2003(102), 43-52.

Saade, R. G., & Kira, D. (2009). Computer anxiety in e-learning: The effect of computer self-efficacy. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 8(1), 177-191.

Schmitt, N. (2007). The interaction of neuroticism and gender and its impact on self-efficacy and performance. Human Performance, 21(1), 49-61.

Schutte, N.S., and Malouff, J.M. (2007). Dimensions of reading motivation: Development of an adult reading motivation scale. Reading Psychology: An International Quarterly, 28(5), 469-489.

Schwartz, J. (2014). High school equivalency as counter‐space. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2014(144), 37-47.

Smith, M. C., Rose, A. D., Ross-Gordon, J., & Smith, T. J. (2015). Adults' readiness to learn as a predictor of literacy skills. Retrieved from:

Tsai, K. C. (2012). The value of teaching creativity in adult education. International Journal of Higher Education, 1(2), 84-91.

Van Rhijn, T. M., & Lero, D. S. (2014). The influence of self-efficacy beliefs for student parents attending university. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 33(4), 541-555.

Yang, C. C., Tsai, I. C., Kim, B., Cho, M. H., & Laffey, J. M. (2006). Exploring the relationships between students' academic motivation and social ability in online learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(4), 277-286.

Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302-314.