Measures and References: Linearity

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Number Line Task: Assesses Linearity by having students position a set of numbers on an unmarked line from 0 to 100 or 1000


Anobile, G., Marco, G., & Burr, D. C. (2012). Linear mapping of numbers onto space requires attention. Cognition, 122(3), 454-459.

Booth, J. L., & Siegler, R. S. (2006). Developmental and individual differences in pure numerical estimation. Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 189-201.

Booth, J. L., & Siegler, R. S. (2008). Numerical magnitude representations influence arithmetic learning. Child Development, 79(4), 1016-1031.

Cornu, V., Hornung, C., Schiltz, C., & Martin, R. (2017). How do different aspects of spatial skills relate to early arithmetic and number line estimation? Journal of Numerical Cognition, 0-59.

Dietrich, J. F., Huber, S., Dackermann, T., Moeller, K., & Fischer, U. (2016). Place-value understanding in number line estimation predicts future arithmetic performance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34(4), 502-517.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Byrd-Craven, J. (2008). Development of number line representations in children with mathematical learning disability. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 277-299.

Gunderson, E. A., Ramirez, G., Beilock, S. L., & Levine, S. C. (2012). The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: The role of the linear number line. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1229-1241.

Laski, E. V., & Siegler, R. S. (2007). Is 27 a big number? Correlational and causal connections among numerical categorization, number line estimation, and numerical magnitude comparison. Child Development, 78(6), 1723-1743.

Siegler, R. S., & Booth, J. L. (2004). Development of numerical estimation in young children. Child Development, 75(2), 428-444.