Measures and References: Math Learning Environment

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Inventory of Parental Influence (e.g., Campbell & Verna, 2007): Measures parents' perceptions of family processes, including pressuring children to achieve academically, providing psychological support at home, helping with schoolwork, emphasizing intellectual development, and monitoring time management.

Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (Alexander & Martray, 1989): A self-report measure of math anxiety in parents and teachers, which can affect children's attitudes toward math.


Alexander, L., & Martray, C. (1989). The development of an abbreviated version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 22(3), 143-150.

Artz, A. F., & Armour-Thomas, E. (1992). Development of a cognitive-metacognitive framework for protocol analysis of mathematical problem solving in small groups. Cognition and Instruction, 9(2), 137-175.

Beilock, S. L., Gunderson, E. A., Ramirez, G., & Levine, S. C. (2010). Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(5), 1860-1863.

Berry III, R. Q., Thunder, K., & McClain, O. L. (2011). Counter narratives: Examining the mathematics and racial identities of Black boys who are successful with school mathematics. Journal of African American Males in Education, 2(1).

Bhanot, R., & Jovanovic, J. (2005). Do parents' academic gender stereotypes influence whether they intrude on their children's homework?. Sex Roles, 52(9-10), 597-607.

Bush, W. S. (1989). Mathematics anxiety in upper elementary school teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 89(6), 499-509.

Camburn, E. M., & Han, S. W. (2011). Two decades of generalizable evidence on US instruction from national surveys. Teachers College Record, 113(3), 561-610.

Campbell, J. R. (1994). Developing cross-cultural/cross-national instruments: Using cross-national methods and procedures. International Journal of Educational Research, 21(7), 675-684.

Campbell, J. R., & Verna, M. A. (2007). Effective parental influence: Academic home climate linked to children's achievement. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13(6), 501-519.

Cozza, B., & Oreshkina, M. (2013). Cross‐cultural study of cognitive and metacognitive processes during math problem solving. School Science and Mathematics, 113(6), 275-284.

Daches Cohen, L. & Rubinsten, O. (2017). Mothers, intrinsic math motivation, arithmetic skills, and math anxiety in elementary school. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1939.

Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., Karns, K., & Dutka, S. (1997). Enhancing students' helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations. Elementary School Journal, 97(3), 223-250.

Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2008). Role of cognitively stimulating home environment in children's academic intrinsic motivation: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 69(5), 1448-1460.

Gottfried, M. A. & Williams, D. (2013). STEM Club Participation and STEM Schooling Outcomes. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21 (79) Retrieved from

Gutierrez, M. V., Willey, C., & Khisty, L. L. (2011). (In)equitable schooling and mathematics of marginalized students: Through the voices of urban Latinas/os. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education, 4(2), 26-43.

Kazemi, E., & Stipek, D. (2009). Promoting conceptual thinking in four upper-elementary mathematics classrooms. Journal of Education, 189(1-2), 123-137.

Ramirez, G., Hooper, S. Y., Kersting, N. B., Ferguson, R., & Yeager, D. (2018). Teacher math anxiety relates to adolescent students' math achievement. AERA Open, 4(1).

Ramirez, G., Shaw, S.T., & Maloney, E.A. (2018). Math anxiety: Past research, promising interventions, and a new interpretation framework. Educational Psychologist, 53(3), 145-164.

Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 120-132.

Sheldon, S. B., & Epstein, J. L. (2005). Involvement counts: Family and community partnerships and mathematics achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(4), 196-207.

Simpkins, S. D., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Parents' socializing behavior and children's participation in math, science, and computer out-of-school activities. Applied Developmental Science, 9(1), 14-30.

Stipek, D. J., Givvin, K. B., Salmon, J. M., & MacGyvers, V. L. (2001). Teachers' beliefs and practices related to mathematics instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2), 213-226.

Tomasetto, C., Alparone, F. R., & Cadinu, M. (2011). Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: The moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes. Developmental Psychology, 47(4), 943.

Webb, N. M., & Farivar, S. (1994). Promoting helping behavior in cooperative small groups in middle school mathematics. American Educational Research Journal, 31(2), 369-395.

Webb, N. M., Franke, M. L., Ing, M., Wong, J., Fernandez, C. H., Shin, N., & Turrou, A. C. (2014). Engaging with others' mathematical ideas: Interrelationships among student participation, teachers' instructional practices, and learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 63, 79-93.