Measures and References: Math Mindset

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Intelligence Mindset (Haimovitz & Dweck, 2016): Four item scale assessing students' attitudes toward intelligence and failure

Mathematics Self-concept (Guo et al., 2016): Five item scale assessing students' mathematics self-concept


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Berry III, R. Q., Thunder, K., & McClain, O. L. (2011). Counter narratives: Examining the mathematics and racial identities of Black boys who are successful with school mathematics. Journal of African American Males in Education, 2(1).

Byrnes, J. P., & Wasik, B. A. (2009). Factors predictive of mathematics achievement in kindergarten, first and third grades: An opportunity-propensity analysis. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(2), 167-183.

Good, C., Aronson, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2003). Improving adolescents' standardized test performance: An intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(6), 645-662.

Guo, J., Nagengast, B., Marsh, H. W., Kelava, A., Gaspard, H., Brandt, H., ... & Brisson, B. (2016). Probing the unique contributions of self-concept, task values, and their interactions using multiple value facets and multiple academic outcomes. AERA Open, 2(1), 2332858415626884.

Haimovitz, K., & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Parents' views of failure predict children's fixed and growth intelligence mind-sets. Psychological Science, 27(6), 859-869.

Jain, S., & Dowson, M. (2009). Mathematics anxiety as a function of multidimensional self-regulation and self-efficacy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(3), 240-249.

Kapur, M. (2014). Productive failure in learning math. Cognitive Science, 38(5), 1008-1022.

Matthews, J. S. (2018). When am I ever going to use this in the real world? Cognitive flexibility and urban adolescents' negotiation of the value of mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(5), 726-746.

Meece, J. L., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1990). Predictors of math anxiety and its influence on young adolescents' course enrollment intentions and performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 60.

Pajares, F., & Graham, L. (1999). Self-efficacy, motivation constructs, and mathematics performance of entering middle school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24(2), 124-139.

Panaoura, A., Gagatsis, A., Deliyianni, E., & Elia, I. (2009). The structure of students' beliefs about the use of representations and their performance on the learning of fractions. Educational Psychology, 29(6), 713-728.

Ramirez, G., Shaw, S.T., & Maloney, E.A. (2018). Math anxiety: Past research, promising interventions, and a new interpretation framework. Educational Psychologist, 53(3), 145-164.

Ross, J. A., Scott, G., & Bruce, C. D. (2012). The gender confidence gap in fractions knowledge: Gender differences in student belief-achievement relationships. School Science and Mathematics, 112(5), 278-288.

Tulis, M., & Ainley, M. (2011). Interest, enjoyment and pride after failure experiences? Predictors of students' state-emotions after success and failure during learning in mathematics. Educational Psychology, 31(7), 779-807.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 82-91.