Measures and References: Measurement

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Measurement Skills Assessment (MeSA) (Vasilyeva et al., 2009): Assesses students' reasoning about Measurement concepts (including length, distance, perimeter, area, and volume) and captures spatial/conceptual vs. formula-based Measurement skills.


Barrett, J. E., Clements, D. H., Klanderman, D., Pennisi, S.-J., & Polaki, M. V. (2006). Students' coordination of geometric reasoning and measuring strategies on a fixed perimeter task: Developing mathematical understanding of linear measurement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 37(3), 187-221.

Barrett, J. E., Cullen, C., Sarama, J., Clements, D. H., Klanderman, D., Miller, A. L., & Rumsey, C. (2011). Children's unit concepts in measurement: A teaching experiment spanning grades 2 through 5. ZDM - International Journal on Mathematics Education, 43(5), 637-650.

Battista, M. T. (2004). Applying cognition-based assessment to elementary school students' development of understanding of area and volume measurement. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 6(2), 185-204.

Casey, B. M., Dearing, E., Vasilyeva, M., Ganley, C. M., & Tine, M. (2011). Spatial and numerical predictors of measurement performance: The moderating effects of community income and gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 296-311.

Curry, M., Mitchelmore, M. C., & Outhred, L. N. (2006). Development of children's understanding of length, area, and volume measurement principles. Proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2(July), 377-384.

Huang, H. M. E., & Witz, K. G. (2011). Developing children's conceptual understanding of area measurement: A curriculum and teaching experiment. Learning and Instruction, 21(1), 1-13.

Joram, E. G., Bertheau, M., Gelman, R., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2005). Children's use of the reference point strategy for measurement estimation. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 36(1), 4-23.

Jones, M. G., Gardner, G. E., Taylor, A. R., Forrester, J. H., & Andre, T. (2012). Students' accuracy of measurement estimation: Context, units, and logical thinking. School Science and Mathematics, 112(3), 171-178.

Kamii, C., & Kysh, J. (2006). The difficulty of "length × width": Is a square the unit of measurement? Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 25(2), 105-115.

Kim, E. M.,Haberstroh, J., Peters, S.,Howell, H.,& Olah, L. N. (2017). A learning progression for geometric measurement in one, two, and three dimensions (Research Report No. RR-17-55). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Vasilyeva, M., Casey, B. M., Dearing, E., & Ganley, C. M. (2009). Measurement skills in low-income elementary school students: Exploring the nature of gender differences. Cognition and Instruction, 27(4), 401-428.