Measures and References: Metacognition

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (Gioia et al, 2000): Measures, through a metacognition index consisting of both parent and teacher questionnaires, the metacognition in students from five to 18 years old


Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children's reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31-42.

Connor, C. M., Radach, R., Vorstius, C., Day, S. L., McLean, L., & Morrison, F. J. (2015). Individual differences in fifth graders' literacy and academic language predict comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(2), 114-134.

Dunn, L., & Dunn, L. (1981). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). BRIEF: Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Grant, S., & Berg, E. A. (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social skills improvement system: Rating scales manual. NCS Pearson.

Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Brindle, M., & Sandmel, K. (2009). Metacognition and children's writing. In D.J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A.C. Graesser (Eds.). Handbook of metacognition in education (pp. 131-153).

Hooper, S. R., Wakely, M. B., De Kruif, R. E., & Swartz, C. W. (2006). Aptitude-treatment interactions revisited: Effect of metacognitive intervention on subtypes of written expression in elementary school students. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29(1), 217-241.

Kendeou, P., Broek, P., Helder, A., & Karlsson, J. (2014). A cognitive view of reading comprehension: Implications for reading difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(1), 10-16.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K. & Dreyer, L. G. (2000). Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K., & Dreyer, L. G. (2002). Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Fourth Edition Technical Report for Forms S & T. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), _The Psychology of Learning and Motivation _(pp. 125-173). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1994). Why investigate metacognition?. In J. Metcalfe & A. P. Shimamura (Eds.), _Metacognition: Knowing about knowing _(pp. 1-25). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Pons, F., Harris, P. L., & de Rosnay, M. (2004). Emotion comprehension between 3 and 11 years: Developmental periods and hierarchical organization. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1(2), 127-152.

Semel, E. M., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (1995). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Swanson, J. M., Schuck, S., Porter, M. M., Carlson, C., Hartman, C. A., Sergeant, J. A., ... & Wigal, T. (2012). Categorical and dimensional definitions and evaluations of symptoms of ADHD: History of the SNAP and the SWAN rating scales. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 10(1), 51-70.

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson-III Tests of Achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside.