Measures and References: Motivation

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990): Self-report questionnaire to assess post-secondary learners' motivation and learning strategies.

Adult Reading Motivation Scale (Schutte & Malouff, 2007): Self-report questionnaire to assess adults' motivations for reading including achieving good outcomes or recognition.


Albertini, J. A., Kelly, R. R., & Matchett, M. K. (2012). Personal factors that influence deaf college students' academic success. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 17(1), 85-101.

Buckworth, J., Lee, R. E., Regan, G., Schneider, L. K., & DiClemente, C. C. (2007). Decomposing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for exercise: Application to stages of motivational readiness. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(4), 441-461.

Carpentieri, J.D. & Frumkin, L. (2010) Adult numeracy: A review of research. National Research and Development Centre for Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC), Institute of Education, University of London.

Cartwright, K. B. (2013). The role of motivation in adults' reading comprehension: A lifespan view. In J. D. Sinnott (Ed.), Positive psychology: Advances in understanding adult motivation (p. 135-143). Springer Science + Business Media.

Comings, J. P. (2008). Student persistence in adult literacy and numeracy programs. In Tracking adult literacy and numeracy skills (pp. 180-196). Routledge.

Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C., and Schulz, R. (2010). A motivational theory of life-span development. Psychological Review, 117(1), 32-60.

Heckhausen, J., Shane, J., & Kanfer, R. (2017). Competence and motivation at work throughout adulthood: Making the most of changing capacities and opportunities. In Elliot, A. J., Dweck, C. S., & Yeager, D. S. (Eds.) (2017). _Handbook of competence and motivation _(2nd ed., pp. 449-470). The Guilford Press.

Komiyama, R. (2013). Factors underlying second language reading motivation of adult EAP students. Reading in a Foreign Language, 25(2), 149-169.

Lucey, K. (2018). The effect of motivation on student persistence in online higher education: A phenomenological study of how adult learners experience motivation in a web-based distance learning environment. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Duquesne University

Martinez-Alcala, C. I., Rosales-Lagarde, A., Alonso-Lavernia, M. D. L. Á., Ramirez-Salvador, J. Á., Jimenez-Rodriguez, B., Cepeda-Rebollar, R. M., ... & Agis-Juarez, R. A. (2018). Digital inclusion in older adults: A comparison between face-to-face and blended digital literacy workshops. Frontiers in ICT, 5, 21.

Merga, M. K. (2017). What motivates avid readers to maintain a regular reading habit in adulthood?. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 40(2), 146.

Patterson, M. B. (2018). Critiquing adult participation in education, report 2: Motivation around adult education. Research Allies for Lifelong Learning.

Pintrich, R. R., & DeGroot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance, Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.

Prins, E., & Van Horn, B. (2012). Adult learning in family literacy. In B.H. Wasik (Ed.), Handbook of Family Literacy (p. 166-180). Routledge.

Schutte, N.S., and Malouff, J.M. (2007). Dimensions of reading motivation: Development of an adult reading motivation scale. Reading Psychology: An International Quarterly, 28(5), 469-489.

Shane, J., & Heckhausen, J. (2013). University students' causal conceptions about social mobility: Diverging pathways for believers in personal merit and luck. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(1), 10-19.

Spencer, S. J., Logel, C., & Davies, P. G. (2016). Stereotype threat. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 415-437.

Stark, E. (2019). Examining the role of motivation and learning strategies in student success in online versus face-to-face courses. Online Learning, 23(3), 234-251.

Tsai, K. C. (2012). The value of teaching creativity in adult education. International Journal of Higher Education, 1(2), 84-91.

Volkow, N. D., Wang, G. J., Newcorn, J. H., Kollins, S. H., Wigal, T. L., Telang, F., … Swanson, J. M. (2011). Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(11), 1147-1154.

Vrugt, A., Oort, F., & Zeeberg, C. (2002). Goal orientations, perceived self-efficacy and study results among beginner and advanced students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(3), 385-397.

Yang, C. C., Tsai, I. C., Kim, B., Cho, M. H., & Laffey, J. M. (2006). Exploring the relationships between students' academic motivation and social ability in online learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(4), 277-286.