Measures and References: Motivation

Return to Motivation factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997): Examines reading Motivation in students in third to eighth grade through a student-rated assessment measuring 11 reading Motivation constructs

Writing Attitude Survey (Kear et al., 2000): Assesses attitude towards writing by asking students to rate how happy or upset they would feel about different writing situations and scenarios


Becker, M., McElvany, N., & Kortenbruck, M. (2010). Intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation as predictors of reading literacy: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 773-785.

Cho, E., Roberts, G. J., Capin, P., Roberts, G., Miciak, J., & Vaughn, S. (2015). Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self‐Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 30(4), 159-170.

Compton, D. L. (2002). The relationships among phonological processing, orthographic processing, and lexical development in children with reading disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 35(4), 201-210.

Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1990). Assessing print exposure and orthographic processing skill in children: A quick measure of reading experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 733-740.

De Naeghel, J., Van Keer, H., Vansteenkiste, M., & Rosseel, Y. (2012). The relation between elementary students' recreational and academic reading motivation, reading frequency, engagement, and comprehension: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 1006-1021.

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109-132.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2009). Almost 30 years of writing research: Making sense of it all with The Wrath of Khan. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(2), 58-68.

Guthrie, J. T., & Wigfield, A. (1999). How motivation fits into a science of reading. Scientific studies of reading, 3(3), 199-205.

Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Metsala, J. L., & Cox, K. E. (1999). Motivational and cognitive predictors of text comprehension and reading amount. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(3), 231-256.

Iyengar, S., & Ball, D. (2007). To read or not to read: A question of national consequence. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts.

Jarvela, S., Jarvenoja, H., & Malmberg, J. (2012). How elementary school students' motivation is connected to self-regulation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(1), 65-84.

Katzir, T., Lesaux, N. K., & Kim, Y. S. (2009). The role of reading self-concept and home literacy practices in fourth grade reading comprehension. Reading and Writing, 22(3), 261-276.

Kear, D. J., Coffman, G. A., McKenna, M. C., & Ambrosio, A. L. (2000). Measuring attitude toward writing: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 54(1), 10-23.

Lehmann, R. H., Peek, R., & Poerschke, J. (1997). HAMLET 3-4: Hamburger Lesetest fu ̈ r 3 bis 4 Klassen [HAMLET 3- 4: Hamburg Reading Test for Grades 3 to 4]. Weinheim, Germany: Beltz.

Lin, D., Wong, K. K., & McBride-Chang, C. (2012). Reading motivation and reading comprehension in Chinese and English among bilingual students. Reading and Writing, 25(3), 717-737.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K. & Dreyer, L. G. (2000). Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

McKenna, M. C, & Kear, D. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43, 626-636.

McKool, S. S. (2007). Factors that influence the decision to read: An investigation of fifth grade students' out-of-school reading habits. Reading Improvement, 44(3), 111-132.

Miyamoto, A., Pfost, M., & Artelt, C. (2018). Reciprocal relations between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence: A comparison between native and immigrant students in Germany. Journal of Research in Reading, 41(1), 176-196.

Möller, J. & Bonerad, E.M. (2007). [Fragebogen zur habituellen Lesemotivation Habitual Reading Motivation Questionnaire]. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 54, 259-267.

Nauck, J., & Otte, R. (1980). Diagnostischer Test Deutsch [Diagnostic test German]. Braunschweig, Germany: Westermann.

Owings, J., McMillan, M., Ahmed, S., West, J., Quinn, P., Hausken, E., ... & Pollack, J. (1994). A guide to using NELS: 88 data. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 139-158.

Pajares, F., Hartley, J. & Valiante, G. (2001). Response format in Writing Self-Efficacy Scales. Greater discrimination increases prediction. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33, 214-221.

Pajares, F., Johnson, M. J., & Usher, E. L. (2007). Sources of writing self-efficacy beliefs of elementary, middle, and high school students. Research in the Teaching of English, 42(1), 104-120.

Rosner, J. (1975). Test of Auditory Analysis Skills. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Schiefele, U. (1999). Interest and learning from text. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(3), 257-279.

Schiefele, U. (2009). Situational and individual interest. In K.R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 197-222). New York: Routledge.

Schiefele, U., Schaffner, E., Moller, J., & Wigfield, A. (2012). Dimensions of reading motivation and their relation to reading behavior and competence. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(4), 427-463.

Scholastic. (2017). Kids & Family Reading Report - 6th Edition. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc.

Taboada, A., Tonks, S. M., Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (2009). Effects of motivational and cognitive variables on reading comprehension. Reading and Writing, 22(1), 85-106.

Wasserberg, M. J. (2014). Stereotype threat effects on African American children in an urban elementary school. The Journal of Experimental Education, 82(4), 502-517.

Wiederholt, J. L., & Blalock, G. (2000). Gray Silent Reading Test. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Wigfield, A. & Guthrie, J.T. (1997). Relations of children's motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 420-432.