Measures and References: Motivation

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) (Gottfried, 1986): A self-report scale where children either agree or disagree with 44 items measuring intrinsic motivation for classroom learning. It includes content for reading, math, social studies, science, and overall school experience.


Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.

Broussard, S. C., & Garrison, M. E. B. (2004). Motivation and academic achievement in elementary-school-aged children. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 33(2), 106-120.

Byrnes, J. P., & Wasik, B. A. (2009). Factors predictive of mathematics achievement in kindergarten, first and third grades: An opportunity - propensity analysis. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(2), 167-183.

Cleary, T. J., & Chen, P. P. (2009). Self-regulation, motivation, and math achievement in middle school: Variations across grade level and math context. Journal of School Psychology, 47(5), 291-314.

Dowson, M., & McInerney, D. M. (2003). What do students say about their motivational goals?: Towards a more complex and dynamic perspective on student motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28(1), 91-113.

Eberle, R. S. (2014). The role of children's mathematical aesthetics: The case of tessellations. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 35, 129-143.

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109-132.

Gottfried, A. E. (1986). Children's academic intrinsic motivation inventory (CAIMI). PAR.

Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., & Guerin, D. W. (2007). Multivariate latent change modeling of developmental decline in academic intrinsic math motivation and achievement: Childhood through adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(4), 317-327.

Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2008). Role of cognitively stimulating home environment in children's academic intrinsic motivation: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 69(5), 1448-1460.

Jansen, A. (2006). Seventh graders' motivations for participating in two discussion-oriented mathematics classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 106(5), 409-428.

Jansen, A. (2012). Developing productive dispositions during small-group work in two sixth-grade mathematics classrooms: Teachers' facilitation efforts and students' self-reported benefits. Middle Grades Research Journal, 7(1), 37-56.

Linnenbrink, E. A. (2005). The dilemma of performance-approach goals: The use of multiple goal contexts to promote students' motivation and learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 197-213.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.