Measures and References: Motivation

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Scale of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Orientation in Classroom (Harter, 1981): Self-report scale that includes five subscales of classroom motivation that are each defined by an intrinsic and an extrinsic pole


Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.

Broussard, S. C., & Garrison, M. E. B. (2004). Motivation and academic achievement in elementary-school-aged children. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 33(2), 106-120.

Byrnes, J. P., & Wasik, B. A. (2009). Factors predictive of mathematics achievement in kindergarten, first and third grades: An opportunity - propensity analysis. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(2), 167-183.

Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119-142.

Goldberg, M. D., & Cornell, D. G. (1998). The influence of intrinsic motivation and self-concept on academic achievement in second- and third-grade students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 21(2), 179-205.

Gottfried, A. E. (1986). Children's academic intrinsic motivation inventory__ (CAIMI). PAR.

Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2008). Role of cognitively stimulating home environment in children's academic intrinsic motivation: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 69(5), 1448-1460.

Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17(3), 300-312.

Jarvela, S., Jarvenoja, H., & Malmberg, J. (2012). How elementary school students' motivation is connected to self-regulation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(1), 65-84.

McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43(9), 626-639.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self-determination theory: Another look at the quality of academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 41(1), 19-31.

Vitiello, V. E., Greenfield, D. B., Munis, P., & George, J. (2011). Cognitive flexibility, approaches to learning, and academic school readiness in head start preschool children. Early Education and Development, 22(3), 338-410.