Return to Multiple Representations: Manipulatives strategy page.
Boggan, M., Harper, S., & Whitmire, A. (2010). Using manipulatives to teach elementary mathematics. _Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 3, _1-6.
Carbonneau, K. J., Marley, S. C., & Selig, J. P. (2013). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of teaching mathematics with concrete manipulatives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 380-400.
Casler-Failing, S. (2002). Multimodal and hands-on strategies to promote mathematical knowledge and skill development in students with a special focus on English language learners. Unpublished manuscript, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY.
Furner, J. M., Yahya, N., & Duffy, M. L. (2005). Teach mathematics: Strategies to reach all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(1), 16-23.
Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009-4060). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Hudson, T. (2017). Six strategies to reach, teach, and close math gaps for Latino English language learners in elementary and middle school. Bellevue, WA: DreamBox Learning.
Mendiburo, M., & Hasselbring, T. (2014). Technology's impact on fraction learning: An experimental comparison of virtual and physical manipulatives. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 33(2), 209-231.
Moyer, P. S., Bolyard, J. J., & Spikell, M. A. (2002). What are virtual manipulatives?. Teaching Children Mathematics, 8(6), 372-377.
Protheroe, N. (2007). What does good math instruction look like?. Principal, 87(1), 51-54.
Reimer, K., & Moyer, P. S. (2005). Third-graders learn about fractions using virtual manipulatives: A classroom study. The Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 24(1), 5-25.
Rittle-Johnson, B., & Jordan, N. C. (2016). Synthesis of IES-Funded Research on Mathematics: 2002-2013 (NCER 2016-2003) Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Vinson, B. M. (2001). A comparison of preservice teachers' mathematics anxiety before and after a methods class emphasizing manipulatives. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 89-94.
Willis, J. (2006). _Research-based strategies to ignite student learning. _Alexandria, VA: ASCD.