Return to Multiple Representations: Manipulatives strategy page.
Carbonneau, K. J., Marley, S. C., & Selig, J. P. (2013). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of teaching mathematics with concrete manipulatives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 380-400.
Casler-Failing, S. (2002). Multimodal and hands-on strategies to promote mathematical knowledge and skill development in students with a special focus on English language learners. Unpublished manuscript, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY.
Furner, J. M., Yahya, N., & Duffy, M. L. (2005). Teach mathematics: Strategies to reach all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(1), 16-23.
Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009-4060). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Hudson, T. (2017). Six strategies to reach, teach, and close math gaps for Latino English language learners in elementary and middle school. Bellevue, WA: DreamBox Learning.
Markey, C., Power, D., & Booker, G. (2003). Using structured games to teach early fraction concepts to students who are deaf or hard of hearing._ American Annals of the Deaf, 148_(3), 251-258.
Moyer, P. S., Bolyard, J. J., & Spikell, M. A. (2002). What are virtual manipulatives?. Teaching Children Mathematics, 8(6), 372-377.
Protheroe, N. (2007). What does good math instruction look like?. Principal, 87(1), 51-54.
Rittle-Johnson, B., & Jordan, N. C. (2016). Synthesis of IES-Funded Research on Mathematics: 2002-2013 (NCER 2016-2003) Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Vinson, B. M. (2001). A comparison of preservice teachers' mathematics anxiety before and after a methods class emphasizing manipulatives. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 89-94.
Willis, J. (2006). _Research-based strategies to ignite student learning. _Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
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