Measures and References: Numeracy

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Woodcock-Johnson® III NU Tests of AchievementWoodcock-Johnson® III NU Tests of Achievement _ (Woodcock et al., 2001): This multi-battery assessment contains sub-tests to measure mathematical fluency, calculation skills, and problem solving ability in adults.


Bull, R., Marschark, M., Sapere, P., Davidson, W. A., Murphy, D., & Nordmann, E. (2011). Numerical estimation in deaf and hearing adults. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 453-457.

Carpentieri, J.D. & Frumkin, L. (2010) Adult numeracy: A review of research. National Research and Development Centre for Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC), Institute of Education, University of London.

Castronovo, J., & Delvenne, J. F. (2013). Superior numerical abilities following early visual deprivation. Cortex, 49(5), 1435-1440.

Duverne, S., & Lemaire, P. (2005). Aging and mental arithmetic. J. I. D. Campbell (Ed.), The Handbook of Mathematical Cognition (pp. 397- 411). Psychology Press.

Fitzsimmons, C. J., Thompson, C. A., & Sidney, P. G. (2019). Confident or familiar? The role of familiarity ratings in adults' confidence judgments when estimating fraction magnitudes. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Psychology of Mathematics Education-North America Conference.

Geurten, M., & Lemaire, P. (2019). Metacognition for strategy selection during arithmetic problem-solving in young and older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 26(3), 424-446.

Grotelueschen, A. D. (1979). Introductory material structure and prior knowledge effects on adult learning. Adult Education, 29(2), 75-82.

Grotluschen, A., Mallows, D., Reder, S., & Sabatini, J. (2016). Adults with low proficiency in literacy or numeracy. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 131, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Hodzik, S., & Lemaire, P. (2011). Inhibition and shifting capacities mediate adults' age-related differences in strategy selection and repertoire. Acta Psychologica, 137(3), 335-344.

Hollis-Sawyer, L. (2011). A math-related decrement stereotype threat reaction among older nontraditional college learners. Educational Gerontology, 37(4), 292-306.

Jameson, M. M., & Fusco, B. R. (2014). Math anxiety, math self-concept, and math self-efficacy in adult learners compared to traditional undergraduate students. Adult Education Quarterly, 64(4), 306-322.

Lesgold, A. M., & Welch-Ross, M., & National Research Council. Committee on Learning Science: Foundations Applications to Adolescent Adult Literacies. (2012). Improving adult literacy instruction: Options for practice and research. National Academies Press.

Manly, M., & Ginsburg, L. (2010). Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education. National Institute for Literacy.

Mellard, D. F., Woods, K. L., & Lee, J. H. (2016). Literacy profiles of at‐risk young adults enrolled in career and technical education. Journal of Research in Reading, 39(1), 88-108.

Nicolas, P., Lemaire, P., & Regner, I. (2020). When and how stereotype threat influences older adults' arithmetic performance: Insight from a strategy approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149(2), 343-367.

Osmon, D. C., Smerz, J. M., Braun, M. M., & Plambeck, E. (2006). Processing abilities associated with math skills in adult learning disability. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(1), 84-95.

Railo, H., Koivisto, M., Revosuo, A., & Hannula, M. (2008). The role of attention in subitizing. Cognition, 107, 82-104.

Rossi, S., Vidal, J., Letang, M., Houde, O., & Borst, G. (2019). Adolescents and adults need inhibitory control to compare fractions. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 5(3), 314-336.

Skagerlund, K., Lind, T., Stromback, C., Tinghog, G., & Vastfjall, D. (2019). Financial literacy and the role of numeracy-How individuals' attitude and affinity with numbers influence financial literacy. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 74, 18-25.

Van Rinsveld, A., Brunner, M., Landerl, K., Schiltz, C., & Ugen, S. (2015). The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: Insights from different stages of language acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 265.

Wilson, A. J., Andrewes, S. G., Struthers, H., Rowe, V. M., Bogdanovic, R., & Waldie, K. E. (2015). Dyscalculia and dyslexia in adults: Cognitive bases of comorbidity. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 118-132.

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson® III NU Tests of Achievement. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

Xiao, F., Barnard-Brak, L., Lan, W., & Burley, H. (2019). Examining problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments as related to numeracy and literacy. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 38(3), 327-338.