Measures and References: Oral Communication Skills

Return to Oral Communication Skills factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Martin & Brownell, 2011): The measure assesses expressive vocabulary for all age groups.


Bakhtiari, D., Greenberg, D., Patton-Terry, N., & Nightingale, E. (2015). Spoken oral language skills of adult struggling readers. Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary, and Basic Education, 4(1), 9-20.

Brink, K. E., & Costigan, R. D. (2015). Oral communication skills: Are the priorities of the workplace and AACSB-accredited business programs aligned?. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 205-221.

Cavanagh, T. M., Leeds, C., & Peters, J. M. (2019). Increasing oral communication self-efficacy improves oral communication and general academic performance. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 82(4), 440-457.

Condelli, L., Wrigley, H., & Yoon, K. S. (2009). "What works" for adult literacy students of English as a second language. Tracking Adult Literacy and Numeracy Skills: Findings from Longitudinal Research, 132-159.

Duffy, F. D., Gordon, G. H., Whelan, G., Cole-Kelly, K., & Frankel, R. (2004). Assessing competence in communication and interpersonal skills: The Kalamazoo II report. Academic Medicine, 79(6), 495-507.

Eckhardt, B. B., Wood, M. R., & Jacobvitz, R. S. (1991). Verbal ability and prior knowledge: Contributions to adults' comprehension of television. Communication Research, 18(5), 636-649.

Gray, F. E., Emerson, L., & MacKay, B. (2005). Meeting the demands of the workplace: Science students and written skills. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 14(4), 425-435.

Greene, J. O. (2003). Models of adult communication skill acquisition: Practice and the course of performance improvement. In J. O. Greene & B. R. Burleson (Eds.), Handbook of communication and social interaction skills (pp. 51-91). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Harrison, Y., & Horne, J. A. (1997). Sleep deprivation affects speech. Sleep, 20(10), 871-877.

Hester, E. J. (2009). An investigation of the relationship between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 30(2), 112-119.

Holtgraves, T. (2005). Social psychology, cognitive psychology, and linguistic politeness. Journal of Politeness Research, 1(1), 73-93.

Huang, D., Leon, S., Hodson, C., La Torre, D., Obregon, N., & Rivera, G. (2010). Preparing students for the 21st Century: Exploring the effect of afterschool participation on students' collaboration skills, oral communication skills, and self-efficacy. CRESST Report 777. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).

Hullman, G. A., Planisek, A., McNally, J. S., & Rubin, R. B. (2010). Competence, personality, and self-efficacy: Relationships in an undergraduate interpersonal course. Atlantic Journal of Communication,18(1), 36-49

Jones, Christopher, R., Fazio, Russell, H., & Vasey, Michael, W. (2012). Attentional control buffers the effect of public speaking anxiety on performance. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(5), 556-561.

Kishon-Rabin, L., Taitelbaum, R., Tobin, Y., & Hildesheimer, M. (1999). The effect of partially restored hearing on speech production of postlingually deafened adults with multichannel cochlear implants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106(5), 2843-2857.

Markow, W., Hughes, D., & Walsh, M. (2019). Future skills, future cities: New foundational skills in smart cities. Business-Higher Education Forum. Business-Higher Education Forum.

Martin, N. A., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (EOWPT-4). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Martin, R. C., & Slevc, L. R. (2014). Language production and working memory. The Oxford Handbook of Language Production, 1-33.

Mol, S. E., & Bus, A. G. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), 267-296.

Mumtaz, S., & Latif, R. (2017). Learning through debate during problem-based learning: An active learning strategy. Advances in Physiology Education, 41(3), 390-394.

Obler, L. K., Fein, D., Nicholas, M., & Albert, M. L. (1991). Auditory comprehension and aging: Decline in syntactic processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12(4), 433-452.

Pichora-Fuller, M. K. (2003). Processing speed and timing in aging adults: psychoacoustics, speech perception, and comprehension. International Journal of Audiology, 42(S1), 59-67.

Rowe, M. L. (2008). Child-directed speech: Relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill. Journal of Child Language, 35(1), 185-205.

Schneider, B. A., Daneman, M., & Murphy, D. R. (2005). Speech comprehension difficulties in older adults: Cognitive slowing or age-related changes in hearing?. Psychology and Aging, 20(2), 261.

Smith, B. L., Wasowicz, J., & Preston, J. (1987). Temporal characteristics of the speech of normal elderly adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 30(4), 522-529.

Spaniol, J., Madden, D. J., & Voss, A. (2006). A diffusion model analysis of adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(1), 101.

Sung, J. E. (2015). Age-related changes in sentence production abilities and their relation to working-memory capacity: evidence from a verb-final language. PLoS One, 10(4), e0119424.

Tighe, E. L., Little, C. W., Arrastia-Chisholm, M. C., Schatschneider, C., Diehm, E., Quinn, J. M., & Edwards, A. A. (2019). Assessing the direct and indirect effects of metalinguistic awareness to the reading comprehension skills of struggling adult readers. Reading and Writing, 32(3), 787-818.

Tighe, E. L., & Schatschneider, C. (2016). Examining the relationships of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers: A meta-analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(4), 395-409.

Weldy, T. G., & Icenogle, M. L. (1997). A managerial perspective: Oral communication competency is most important for business students in the workplace. The Journal of Business Communication, 34(1), 67-80.