Measures and References: Physical Fitness

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Measures

Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Body Mass Index (BMI): An indicator of weight that takes height into account

General Measures: Physical Fitness can be measured in several different ways, such as the average amount of time a child spends in physical activities each week and a child's weight.

References

Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C. H., Perry, B. D., … Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174-186.

Beccuti, G., & Pannain, S. (2011). Sleep and obesity. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(4), 402-412.

Cappuccio, F. P., Taggart, F. M., Kandala, N., Currie, A., Peile, E., Stranges, S., & Miller, M. A. (2008). Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep, 31(5), 619-626.

Chaddock, L., Erickson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., Voss, M. W., VanPatter, M., Pontifex, M. B., … Kramer, A. F. (2012). A functional MRI investigation of the association between childhood aerobic fitness and neurocognitive control. Biological Psychology, 89(1), 260-268.

Chaddock-Heyman, L., Erickson, K. I., Kienzler, C., King, M., Pontifex, B., Raine, L. B., … Kramer, A. F. (2015). The role of aerobic fitness in cortical thickness and mathematics achievement in preadolescent children. PloS One, 10(8), 1-11.

Chaddock-Heymann, L., Hillman, C. H., Pontifex, M. B., Johnson, C. R., Raine, L. B., & Kramer, A. F. (2012). Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(5), 421-430.

Coe, D. P., Pivarnik, J. M., Womack, C. J., Reeves, M. J., & Malina, R. M. (2006). Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(8), 1515-1519.

Davis, C. L., Tomporowski, P. D., McDowell, J. E., Austin, B. P., Miller, P. H., Yanasak … J.D., Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: A randomized, controlled trial. Health Psychology, 30(1), 91-98.

De Greeff, J. W., Hartman, E., Bosker, R. J., Doolaard, S., & Visscher, C. (2014). Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage. Health Education Research, 29(5), 853-860.

Eveland-Sayers, B. M., Farley, R. S., Fuller, D. K., Morgan, D. W., & Caputo, J. L. (2009). Physical fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 6(1), 99-104.

Franzini, L., Taylor, W., Elliott, M. N., Cuccaro, P., Tortolero, S. R., Gilliland, M. J., … & Schuster, M. A. (2010). Neighborhood characteristics favorable to outdoor physical activity: disparities by socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition. Health & Place, 16(2), 267-274.

Judge, S., & Jahns, L. (2007). Association of overweight with academic performance and social and behavioral problems: An update from the early childhood longitudinal study. Journal of School Health, 77(10), 672-678.

Kamijo, K., Pontifex, M. B., O'Leary, K. C., Scudder, M. R., Wu, C. T., Castelli, D. M., & Hillman, C. H. (2011). The effects of an afterschool physical activity program on working memory in preadolescent children. Developmental Science, 14(5), 1046-1058.

Lieberman, L. J., & McHugh, E. (2001). Health-related fitness of children who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(5), 272-287.

Lumeng J.C., Appugliese D., Cabral H.J., Bradley R.H., & Zuckerman B. (2006). Neighborhood safety and overweight status in children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, __160(1), 25-31.

O'Dea, J. A., & Mugridge, A. C. (2012). Nutritional quality of breakfast and physical activity independently predict the literacy and numeracy scores of children after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Health Education Research, 27(6), 1-11.

Van der Niet, A. G., Hartman, E., Smith, J., & Visscher, C. (2014). Modeling relationships between physical fitness, executive functioning, and academic achievement in primary school children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(4), 319-325.