Measures and References: Physical Well-being

Return to Physical Well-being factor page.

Measures

Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Body Mass Index (BMI): An indicator of weight that takes height into account

General Measures: Physical Fitness can be measured in several different ways, such as the average amount of time a child spends in physical activities each week and a child's weight.

References

Alliance for Excellent Education. (2018). Science of adolescent learning: How body and brain development affect student learning. Retrieved from https://all4ed.org/science-of-adolescent-learning-body-brain-development/

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Aparicio, E., Canals, J., Arija, V., De Henauw, S., & Michels, N. (2016). The role of emotion regulation in childhood obesity: Implications for prevention and treatment. Nutrition Research Reviews, 29(1), 17-29.

Beck, J. S., Beck, A. T., Jolly, J. B., & Steer, R. A. (2005). Beck Youth Inventories for children and adolescents (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

Budde, H., Voelcker-Rehage, C., Pietraßyk-Kendziorra, S., Ribeiro, P., & Tidow, G. (2008). Acute coordinative exercise improves attentional performance in adolescents. Neuroscience Letters, 441(2), 219-223.

Budde, H., Voelcker-Rehage, C., Pietrassyk-Kendziorra, S., Machado, S., Ribeiro, P., & Arafat, A. M. (2010). Steroid hormones in the saliva of adolescents after different exercise intensities and their influence on working memory in a school setting. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(3), 382-391.

Burlew, A. K., Johnson, C. S., Flowers, A. M., Peteet, B. J., Griffith-Henry, K. D., & Buchanan, N. D. (2009). Neighborhood risk, parental supervision and the onset of substance use among African American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18(6), 680-689.

Cappuccio, F. P., Taggart, F. M., Kandala, N., Currie, A., Peile, E., Stranges, S., & Miller, M. A. (2008). Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep, 31(5), 619-626.

Chomitz, V. R., Slining, M. M., McGowan, R. J., Mitchell, S. E., Dawson, G. F., & Hacker, K. A. (2009). Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive results from public school children in the northeastern United States. Journal of School Health, 79(1), 30-37.

Hyndman, B., Telford, A., Finch, C., Ullah, S., & Benson, A. C. (2013). The development of the lunchtime enjoyment of activity and play questionnaire. Journal of School Health, 83(4), 256-264.

Jackson, S. L., Yang, E. C., & Zhang, Z. (2018). Income disparities and cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents. Pediatrics, e20181089.

Jansen, P., Ellinger, J., & Lehmann, J. (2018). Increased physical education at school improves the visual-spatial cognition during adolescence. Educational Psychology, 1-13.

Jin, Y., & Jones-Smith, J. C. (2015). Associations between family income and children's physical fitness and obesity in California, 2010-2012. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12, 1-9.

Kirkpatrick, S. I., McIntyre, L., & Potestio, M. L. (2010). Child hunger and long-term adverse consequences for health. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(8), 754-762.

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), S13-S20.

Krebs-Smith, S. M., Guenther, P. M., Subar, A. F., Kirkpatrick, S. I., & Dodd, K. W. (2010). Americans do not meet federal dietary recommendations. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(10), 1832-1838.

Lessard, L. M., & Juvonen, J. (2020). Weight stigma in the school setting: The role of inclusive weight climate—A commentary. Journal of School Health, 90(7), 507-510.

Lieberman, L. J., & McHugh, E. (2001). Health-related fitness of children who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(5), 272-287.

Moore, J. B., Yin, Z., Hanes, J., Duda, J., Gutin, B., & Barbeau, P. (2009). Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in children: validation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21(S1), S116-S129.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sambrano, S., Springer, J., & Hermann, J. (1997). Informing the next generation of prevention programs: CSAP's cross evaluation of the 1994-95 high risk youth grantees. Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 375-395.

Spruit, A., Assink, M., van Vugt, E., van der Put, C., & Stams, G. J. (2016). The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 45, 56-71.

Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 83-110.

Van der Niet, A. G., Hartman, E., Smith, J., & Visscher, C. (2014). Modeling relationships between physical fitness, executive functioning, and academic achievement in primary school children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(4), 319-325.

Varni, J. W., Seid, M., & Kurtin, P. S. (2001). PedsQL™ 4.0: Reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales in healthy and patient populations. Medical Care, 800-812.

Verburgh, L., Konigs, M., Scherder, E. J., & Oosterlaan, J. (2014). Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(12), 973-979.