Measures and References: Place Value

Return to Place Value factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Informal Place Value Assessment: Informally assesses student understanding of Place Value with tasks like: 1) asking students to write multi-digit numbers, 2) asking students to select the multi-digit number that matches one read verbally, and 3) asking students to compare magnitudes of multi-digit numbers


Carpenter, T. P., Franke, M. L., Jacobs, V. R., Fennema, E., & Empson, S. B. (1998). A longitudinal study of invention and understanding in children's multidigit addition and subtraction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(1), 37-50.

Dietrich, J. F., Huber, S., Dackermann, T., Moeller, K., & Fischer, U. (2016). Place-value understanding in number line estimation predicts future arithmetic performance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34(4), 502-517.

Ho, C. S., & Cheng, F. S. (1997). Training in place-value concepts improves children's addition skills. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 495-506.

Laski, E. V., Schiffman, J., Shen, C., & Vasilyeva, M. (2016). Kindergartners' base-10 knowledge predicts arithmetic accuracy concurrently and longitudinally. Learning and Individual Differences, 50, 234-239.

Mix, K. S., Prather, R. W., Smith, L. B., & Stockton, J. D. (2014). Young children's interpretation of multidigit number names: From emerging competence to mastery. Child Development, 85(3), 1306-1319.

Moeller, K., Pixner, S., Zuber, J., Kaufmann, L., & Nuerk, H. (2011). Early place-value understanding as a precursor for later arithmetic performance -- A longitudinal study on numerical development. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(5), 1837-1851.

Moura, R., Wood, G. M., Pinheiro-Chagas, P., Lonnemann, J., Krinzinger, H., Willmes, K., & Haase, V. G. (2013). Transcoding abilities in typical and atypical mathematics achievers: The role of working memory and procedural and lexical competencies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 707-727.

Pixner, S., Leyrer, M., & Moeller, K. (2014). Number processing and arithmetic skills in children with cochlear implants. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1479.

Thompson, J. M., Nuerk, H., Moeller, K., & Cohen, R. (2013). The link between mental rotation ability and basic numerical representations. Acta Psychologica, 144(2), 324-331.