Measures and References: References: Primary Language

Return to References: Primary Language factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey - Revised Normative Update: (WMLS-R NU: Schrank et al., 2010): A norm-referenced test of reading, writing, listening, and language comprehension skills that can be administered in both English and Spanish.


Abu Rabia, S. (2019). The effect of degrees of bilingualism on metacognitive linguistic skills. International Journal of Bilingualism, 23(5), 1064-1086.

Adesope, O. O., Lavin, T., Thompson, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2010). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive correlates of bilingualism. Review of Educational Research, 80(2), 207-245.

Barac, R., Bialystok, E., Castro, D. C., & Sanchez, M. (2014). The cognitive development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 699-714.

Bernardo, A. B. (2023). Growth mindset and reading proficiency of ESL learners: examining the role of students' socioeconomic status using PISA 2018 Philippine data. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 38(2), 675-693.

Bialystok, E. (1988). Levels of bilingualism and levels of linguistic awareness. Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 560.

Bohlmann, N. L., Maier, M. F., & Palacios, N. (2015). Bidirectionality in self‐regulation and expressive vocabulary: Comparisons between monolingual and dual language learners in preschool. Child Development, 86(4), 1094-1111.

Brice, A. (2000). Code switching and code mixing in the ESL classroom: A study of pragmatic and syntactic features. Advances in Speech Language Pathology, 2(1), 19-28.

Brito, N. H., Noble, K. G., & Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, Genetics Study. (2018). The independent and interacting effects of socioeconomic status and dual‐language use on brain structure and cognition. Developmental Science, 21(6), e12688.

Brown, C. L. (2011). Maintaining heritage language: Perspectives of Korean parents. Multicultural Education, 19(1), 31-37.

Carhill–Poza, A. (2015). Opportunities and outcomes: The role of peers in developing the oral academic English proficiency of adolescent English learners. The Modern Language Journal, 99(4), 678-695.

Chiu, M. M., Pong, S. L., Mori, I., & Chow, B. W. Y. (2012). Immigrant students' emotional and cognitive engagement at school: A multilevel analysis of students in 41 countries. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1409-1425.

Chondrogianni, V., & Daskalaki, E. (2023). Heritage language use in the country of residence matters for language maintenance, but short visits to the homeland can boost heritage language outcomes. Frontiers in Language Sciences, 2, 1230408.

Christoffels, I. K., Haan, A. M. De, & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Two is better than one: Bilingual education promotes the flexible mind. Psychological Research, 79, 371–379.

Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 103-115.

Cummins, J. (2005). A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. Modern Language Journal, 585-592.

Daniel, S. M., & Pacheco, M. B. (2016). Translanguaging practices and perspectives of four multilingual teens. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 59(6), 653-663.

del Villar Nash, C. (2011). Bullying, ethnic discrimination, or both? A phenomenological study of the experiences of immigrant adolescents. University of Toronto (Canada).

DeMatthews, D. E., Edwards Jr, D. B., & Nelson, T. E. (2014). Identification problems: US special education eligibility for English language learners. International Journal of Educational Research, 68, 27-34.

Dong, Y. R. (2004). Preparing secondary subject area: Teachers to teach linguistically and culturally diverse students. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 77(5), 202-208.

Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (1998). Background knowledge, linguistic complexity, and second-language reading comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research, 30(2), 253-271.

Fillmore, L. W. (1991). When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6(3), 323-346.

Foy, J. G., & Mann, V. A. (2013). Bilingual children show advantages in nonverbal auditory executive function task. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(6), 717-729.

Galambos, S. J., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1990). The effects of learning two languages on levels of metalinguistic awareness. Cognition, 34(1), 1-56.

Giovannoli, J., Martella, D., Federico, F., Pirchio, S., & Casagrande, M. (2020). The impact of bilingualism on executive functions in children and adolescents: A systematic review based on the PRISMA method. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 574789.

Godley, A., & Escher, A. (2012). Bidialectal African American adolescents' beliefs about spoken language expectations in English classrooms. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(8), 704-713.

Gupta, A. (2019). Principles and practices of teaching English Language Learners. International Education Studies, 12(7), 49-57.

Haneda, M. (2008). Contexts for learning: English language learners in a US middle school. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(1), 57-74.

Haskins, R., Greenberg, M., & Fremstad, S. (2004). Federal policy for immigrant children: Room for common ground? (Policy Brief). The Future of Children, 14(2), 2-6.

Hedman, C. (2012). Profiling dyslexia in bilingual adolescents. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(6), 529-542.

Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Señor, M., & Parra, M. (2012). Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39(1), 1-27.

Hoff, E. (2013). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: Implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 4-14.

Hughes, C. E., Shaunessy, E. S., Brice, A. R., Ratliff, M. A., & McHatton, P. A. (2006). Code switching among bilingual and limited English proficient students: Possible indicators of giftedness. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 30(1), 7-28.

Kapa, L. L., & Colombo, J. (2013). Attentional control in early and later bilingual children. Cognitive Development, 28(3), 233-246.

Karimi, M. N., & Rad, Z. H. (2021). Bilingual advantage hypothesis: Testing the fit among L1-dominant child and adolescent bilinguals. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 60, 101017.

Kaushanskaya, M., Blumenfeld, H. K., & Marian, V. (2011). The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15(4), 408-425.

Kojima, E. (2007). Factors associated with second language anxiety in adolescents from different cultural backgrounds. University of Southern California.

Kormi-Nouri, R., Shojaei, R. S., Moniri, S., Gholami, A. R., Moradi, A. R., Akbari-Zardkhaneh, S., & Nilsson, L. G. (2008). The effect of childhood bilingualism on episodic and semantic memory tasks. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 93–109.

Kormi‐Nouri, R. E. Z. A., SHOJAEI, R. S., Moniri, S., GHOLAMI, A. R., MORADI, A. R., Akbari‐Zardkhaneh, S., & NILSSON, L. G. (2008). The effect of childhood bilingualism on episodic and semantic memory tasks. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 93-109.

Krizman, J., Bradlow, A. R., Lam, S. S. Y., & Kraus, N. (2017). How bilinguals listen in noise: Linguistic and non-linguistic factors. Bilingualism, 20(4), 834–843.

Krizman, J., Marian, V., Shook, A., Skoe, E., & Kraus, N. (2012). Subcortical encoding of sound is enhanced in bilinguals and relates to executive function advantages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(20), 7877-7881.

Lesaux, N. K., Crosson, A. C., Kieffer, M. J., & Pierce, M. (2010). Uneven profiles: Language minority learners' word reading, vocabulary, and reading comprehension skills. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(6), 475-483.

Li, J. (2009). Forging the future between two different worlds: Recent Chinese immigrant adolescents tell their cross-cultural experiences. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(4), 477-504.

Liang, F. (2018). Parental perceptions toward and practices of heritage language maintenance: Focusing on the United States and Canada. International Journal of Language Studies, 12(2), 65-86.

Marchman, V. A., Fernald, A., & Hurtado, N. (2010). How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish–English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 37(04), 817-840.

Martin-Beltrán, M. (2014). “What do you want to say?” How adolescents use translanguaging to expand learning opportunities. International Multilingual Research Journal, 8(3), 208-230.

McCardle, P., Keller-Allen, C., & Shuy, T. (2008). Learning disability identification. In E. Grigorenko (Ed.), Educating Individuals with Disabilities(pp. 137–164). New York, NY: Springer.

McHatton, P. A., Shaunessy, E., Hughes, C., Brice, A., & Ratliff, M. A. (2007). You gotta represent¡ ethnic identity development among hispanic adolescents. Multicultural Perspectives, 9(3), 12-20.

Meristo, M., Falkman, K. W., Hjelmquist, E., Tedoldi, M., Surian, L., & Siegal, M. (2007). Language access and theory of mind reasoning: evidence from deaf children in bilingual and oralist environments. Developmental Psychology, 43(5), 1156.

Meltzer, J., & Hamann, E. T. (2004). Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolescent English Language Learners Through Content Area Learning - PART ONE: Focus on Motivation and Engagement. Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education, 51.

Moje, E. B., Ciechanowski, K. M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004). Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday funds of knowledge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(1), 38-70.

Morton, J. B., & Harper, S. N. (2007). What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage. Developmental Science, 10(6), 719-726.

Park, S. M. (2013). Immigrant students' heritage language and cultural identity maintenance in multilingual and multicultural societies. Concordia Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 30-53.

Pearson, B. Z., Conner, T., & Jackson, J. E. (2013). Removing obstacles for African American English-speaking children through greater understanding of language difference. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 31.

Pinnow, R. J., & Chval, K. B. (2015). “How much you wanna bet?”: Examining the role of positioning in the development of L2 learner interactional competencies in the content classroom. Linguistics and Education, 30, 1–11.

Polyanskaya, L., Manrique, H. M., Marín, A., García-Palacios, A., & Ordin, M. (2022). Typological differences influence the bilingual advantage in metacognitive processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Ramirez, G., Chen, X., Geva, E., & Kiefer, H. (2010). Morphological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners: Within and cross-language effects on word reading. Reading and Writing, 23, 337-358.

Schrank, F. A., Wendling, B. J., & Alvarado, C. G. (2010). Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey–Revised Normative Update. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

Shenoy, S. (2014). Assessment tools to differentiate between language differences and disorders in English language learners. Berkeley Review of Education, 5(1), 33-52.

Short, D. J., & Fitzsimmons-Doolan, S. (2007). Double the work: Challenges and solutions to acquiring language and academic literacy for adolescent English language learners.

Smith, P. (2020). The case for translanguaging in Black immigrant literacies. Literacy Research: Theory, Method, and Practice, 69(1), 192-210.

Swanson, H. L., Orosco, M. J., & Lussier, C. M. (2015). Growth in literacy, cognition, and working memory in English language learners. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 132, 155-188.

Thorn, A. S., & Gathercole, S. E. (1999). Language-specific knowledge and short-term memory in bilingual and non-bilingual children. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 52(2), 303-324.

Vorobel, O., & Kim, D. (2017). Adolescent ELLs' collaborative writing practices in face-to-face and online contexts: From perceptions to action. System, 65, 78-89.