Measures and References: Safety

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Electronic Bullying Questionnaire (Kowalski & Limber, 2007): Self-report questionnaire to assess how often adults had been cyberbullied via email, chat, text, etc. and how often they had cyberbullied others.

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Self-report screening tool to assess drinking behaviors and alcohol-related problems.


Ahmadi, A., Pearlson, G. D., Meda, S. A., Dager, A., Potenza, M. N., Rosen, R., … Stevens, M. C. (2013). Influence of alcohol use on neural response to Go/No-Go task in college drinkers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(11), 2197-2208.

Arria, A. M., Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., Winick, E. R., & O'Grady, K. E. (2013). Drug use patterns and continuous enrollment in college: Results from a longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74(1), 71-83.

Bond, S. A., Tuckey, M. R., & Dollard, M. F. (2010). Psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 37-56.

Chambers, E. C., Pichardo, M. S., & Rosenbaum, E. (2016). Sleep and the housing and neighborhood environment of urban Latino adults living in low-income housing: the AHOME study. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14(2), 169-184.

Dry, M. J., Burns, N. R., Nettelbeck, T., Farquharson, A. L., & White, J. M. (2012). Dose-related effects of alcohol on cognitive functioning. PLoS ONE, 7(11), 1-8.

Harrell, E., Langton, L., Berzofsky, M., Couzens, L., & Smiley-McDonald, H. (2014). Household poverty and nonfatal violent victimization, 2008-2012. US Department of Justice.

Harvey, A. J., Kneller, W., & Campbell, A. C. (2013). The effects of alcohol intoxication on attention and memory for visual scenes. Memory, 21(8), 969-980.

Hersh, M. (2013). Deafblind people, communication, independence, and isolation. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(4), 446-463.

Horsman, J. (2000). Too scared to learn: Women, violence, and education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Holt, M. K., Greif Green, J., Reid, G., DiMeo, A., Espelage, D. L., Felix, E. D., ... & Sharkey, J. D. (2014). Associations between past bullying experiences and psychosocial and academic functioning among college students. Journal of American College Health, 62(8), 552-560.

Houben, K., Wiers, R. W., & Jansen, A. (2011). Getting a grip on drinking behavior: Training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse. Psychological Science, 22(7), 968-975.

Kowalski, R.M., Giumetti, G.W., Schroeder, A.N. and Reese, H.H. (2012), Cyber Bullying Among College Students: Evidence from Multiple Domains of College Life, In Wankel, L.A. and Wankel, C. (Eds.) Misbehavior online in higher education. (Vol. 5, pp. 293-321). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S22-S30.

Lowe, S. R., & Galea, S. (2017). The mental health consequences of mass shootings. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(1), 62-82.

MacLean, R. R., Geier, C. F., Henry, S. L., & Wilson, S. J. (2014). Digital peer interactions affect risk taking in young adults. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(4), 772-780.

Martin, L. G. (2004). Adult education in the urban context. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2004(101), 3-16.

Nelson, T. O., McSpadden, M., Fromme, K., & Marlatt, G. A. (1986). Effects of alcohol intoxication on metamemory and on retrieval from long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115(3), 247.

Owsley, C., Ball, K., McGwin Jr, G., Sloane, M. E., Roenker, D. L., White, M. F., & Overley, E. T. (1998). Visual processing impairment and risk of motor vehicle crash among older adults. JAMA, 279(14), 1083-1088.

Perry, B. D. (2006). Fear and learning: Trauma-related factors in the adult education process. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 110, 21.

Prins, E., & Van Horn, B. (2012). Adult learning in family literacy. In B.H. Wasik (Ed.), Handbook of Family Literacy (p. 166-180). Routledge.

Rooney, M., Chronis-Tuscano, A. M., & Huggins, S. (2015). Disinhibition mediates the relationship between ADHD and problematic alcohol use in college students. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(4), 313-327

Torgerson, C. N., Love, H. A., & Vennum, A. (2018). The buffering effect of belonging on the negative association of childhood trauma with adult mental health and risky alcohol use. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 88, 44-50.

Wilson-Genderson, M., & Pruchno, R. (2013). Effects of neighborhood violence and perceptions of neighborhood safety on depressive symptoms of older adults. Social Science & Medicine, 85, 43-49.

Wodtke, G. T., Harding, D. J., & Elwert, F. (2011). Neighborhood effects in temporal perspective: The impact of long-term exposure to concentrated disadvantage on high school graduation. American Sociological Review, 76(5), 713-736.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2016). Neighborhoods and violent crime.