Measures and References: Safety

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Peer Victimization Scale (Austin & Joseph, 1996): Assesses bullying victimization at school for students eight to 11 years old

Neighborhood Questionnaire (Greenberg & Lengua, 1995): Measures a parent's opinion about their neighborhood including safety, quality of public services, and incidence of violent crime


Accordino, D. B., & Accordino, M. P. (2011). An exploratory study of face-to-face and cyberbullying in sixth grade students. American Secondary Education, 40(1), 14-30.

Alisic, E., Zalta, A. K., Van Wesel, F., Larsen, S. E., Hafstad, G. S., Hassanpour, K., & Smid, G. E. (2014). Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed children and adolescents: meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(5), 335-340.

Austin, S., & Joseph, S. (1996). Assessment of bully/victim problems in 8-11 year-olds. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 447-456.

Beck, J. S., Beck, A. T., Jolly, J. B., & Steer, R. A. (2005). Beck Youth Inventories for children and adolescents (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

Burlew, A. K., Johnson, C. S., Flowers, A. M., Peteet, B. J., Griffith-Henry, K. D., & Buchanan, N. D. (2009). Neighborhood risk, parental supervision and the onset of substance use among African American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18(6), 680-689.

Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 471-490.

Franzini, L., Taylor, W., Elliott, M. N., Cuccaro, P., Tortolero, S. R., Gilliland, M.J., … Schuster, M. A. (2010). Neighborhood characteristics favorable to outdoor physical activity: Disparities by socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition. Health & Place, 16(2), 267-274.

Greenberg, M., & Lengua, L. (1995). Scale construction for the neighborhood questionnaire. Seattle, WA: University of Washington.

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), S13-S20.

Lowe, S. R., & Galea, S. (2017). The mental health consequences of mass shootings. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(1), 62-82.

Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., & Elliott, S. N. (2000). The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University.

Milam, A. J., Furr-Holden, C. D. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Perceived school and neighborhood safety, neighborhood violence and academic achievement in urban school children. The Urban Review, 42(5), 458-467.

Mishna, F., Khoury-Kassabri, M., Schwan, K., Wiener, J., Craig, W., Beran, T., ... & Daciuk, J. (2016). The contribution of social support to children and adolescents' self-perception: The mediating role of bullying victimization. Children and Youth Services Review, 63, 120-127.

Mohammad, E. T., Shapiro, E. R., Wainwright, L. D., & Carter, A. S. (2015). Impacts of family and community violence exposure on child coping and mental health. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(2), 203-215.

Nickerson, A. B. (2017). Preventing and intervening with bullying in schools: A framework for evidence-based practice. School Mental Health, 1-14.

Peterson, J., Sackrison, E., & Polland, A. (2015). Training students to respond to shootings on campus: Is it worth it?. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2(2), 127-138.

Posner, J. K., & Vandell, D. L. (1994). Low-income children's after-school care: are there beneficial effects of after-school programs?. Child Development, 65, 440-456.

Reuland, M. M., & Mikami, A. Y. (2014). Classroom victimization: Consequences for social and academic adjustment in elementary school. Psychology in the Schools, 51(6), 591-607.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sambrano, S., Springer, J., & Hermann, J. (1997). Informing the next generation of prevention programs: CSAP's cross evaluation of the 1994-95 high risk youth grantees. Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 375-395.

Sharkey, P. (2010). The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(26), 11733-11738.

Sousa, C., Mason, W. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Prince, D., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2018). Direct and indirect effects of child abuse and environmental stress: A lifecourse perspective on adversity and depressive symptoms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88(2), 180-188.

Weiner, M. T., Day, S. J., & Galvan, D. (2013). Deaf and hard of hearing students' perspectives on bullying and school climate. American Annals of the Deaf, 158(3), 334-343.