Measures and References: Self-regulation

Return to Self-regulation factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (Gioia et al, 2000): Parent and teacher questionnaire assessing Self-regulation and executive function, including Inhibition, in students five to 18 years old


Altemeier, L. E., Abbott, R. D., & Berninger, V. W. (2008). Executive functions for reading and writing in typical literacy development and dyslexia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(5), 588-606.

Barkley, R. (1997). Behavioural inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions. _Psychological Bulletin, 121, _65-94.

Berninger, V. W. (2001). PAL: Process Assessment of the Learner, Test Battery for Reading and Writing. Psychological Corporation.

Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641-1660.

Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children's functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2), 111-127.

Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R.H. (2005). HOME inventory administration manual, standard edition. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.

Cameron Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. S., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 605-619.

Delis, D., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J. (2003). Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.

Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., ... & Sexton, H. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446.

Dunn, W. (2007). Supporting children to participate successfully in everyday life by using sensory processing knowledge. Infants and Young Children, 20, 84-101.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2005). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III-NL. Nederlandse versie Liesbeth Schlichting. Handleiding. Amsterdam: Harcourt Test Publishers.

Eriksen, B.A., & Eriksen, C.W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16(1), 143-149.

Geelhoed, J. W., & Reitsma, P. (1999). PI-dictee. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53(2), 129-153.

Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). BRIEF: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Golden, C.J. (1978). Stroop Color and Word Test: A manual for clinical and experimental uses. Chicago: Stoelting Co.

Gordon, M., & Barkley, R. A. (1998). Psychological testing and observational measures. In R. A. Barkley (Ed.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for clinicians. New York: Guilford Publications.

Hoffmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174-180.

Jarvela, S., Jarvenoja, H., & Malmberg, J. (2012). How elementary school students' motivation is connected to self-regulation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(1), 65-84.

Kaplan, S., & Berman, M. G. (2010). Directed attention as a common resource for executive functioning and self-regulation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(1), 43-57.

MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health. (2000). John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health Sociodemographic Questionnaire.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K. & Dreyer, L. G. (2000). Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers' literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947-959.

Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), _The Psychology of Learning and Motivation _(pp. 125-173). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Pelco, L. E., & Reed-Victor, E. (2007). Self-regulation and learning-related social skills: Intervention ideas for elementary school students. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 51(3), 36-42.

Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2002). Sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and behavior problems in school‐age children. Child Development, 73(2), 405-417.

Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 120-132.

Schretlen, D., Bobholz, J. H., & Brandt, J. (1996). Development and psychometric properties of the Brief Test of Attention. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89.

Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643-662.

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R., & Rashotte, C. (1999). Test of Word Reading Efficiency. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Van Waelvelde, H., De Mey, B., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M. (2008). Handleiding SOS. Systematische opsporing van schrijfmotorische problemen. Ghent: Revalidatiewetenschappen en Kinesitherapie Gent.

Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th ed.). Psychological Corporation.

Wechsler D. (2009). Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests (3rd ed.) San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Williford, A. P., Vick Whittaker, J. E., Vitiello, V. E., & Downer, J. T. (2013). Children's engagement within the preschool classroom and their development of self-regulation. Early Education and Development, 24(2), 162-187.

Wolf, M., & Denckla, M. (2005). RAN/RAS Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.