Measures and References: Short-term Memory

Return to Short-term Memory factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Children's Memory Scale (CMS) (Cohen, 1997): Assesses Long- and Short-term Memory in verbal, visual, and attention/concentration domains in students five to 16 years old

Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) (Reynolds & Voress, 2007): Measures verbal, nonverbal, and composite memory in people five to 59 years old


Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417-423.

Bishop, D. (1982). TROG: Test for Reception of Grammar. England: Medical Research Council.

Cohen, M. J. (1997). Examiner's manual: Children's Memory Scale. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: PPVT-4A. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.

Farah, M. J., Shera, D. M., Savage, J. H., Betancourt, L., Giannetta, J. M., Brodsky, N., … E.K., Hurt, H. (2006). Childhood poverty: Specific associations with neurocognitive development. Brain Research, 1110, 166-174.

Hanten, G., & Martin, R. C. (2000). Contributions of phonological and semantic short-term memory to sentence processing: Evidence from two cases of closed head injury in children. Journal of Memory and Language, 43(2), 335-361.

Harris, M. S., Kronenberger, W. G., Gao, S., Hoen, H. M., Miyamoto, R. T., & Pisoni, D. B. (2013). Verbal short-term memory development and spoken language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. Ear and Hearing, 34(2), 179.

Kibby, M. Y. (2009). There are multiple contributors to the verbal short-term memory deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 15(5), 485-506.

Kibby, M. Y., & Cohen, M. J. (2008). Memory functioning in children with reading disabilities and/ or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A clinical investigation of their working memory and long-term memory functioning. Child Neuropsychology, 14(8), 525-546.

Kibby, M. Y., Marks, W., Morgan, S., & Long, C. J. (2004). Specific impairment in developmental reading disabilities: A working memory approach. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(4), 349-363.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, A. M., Fowler, C., & Fischer, F. W. (1977). Phonetic segmentation and recoding in the beginning reader. In A. S. Reber & D. Scarborough (Eds.), Toward a psychology of reading: The proceedings of the C.U.N.Y. Conferences (pp. 207-225). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Loomis, D., Holt, R., Kaufman, J. C., & Kaufman, A. S. (2010). Kaufman assessment battery for children. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1-2.

McDougall, S. J. P., & Donohoe, R. (2002). Reading ability and memory span: Long-term memory contributions to span for good and poor readers. Reading and Writing, 15(3), 359-387.

Montgomery, J. W., & Windsor, J. (2007). Examining the language performances of children with and without specific language impairment: Contributions of phonological short-term memory and speed of processing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(3), 778-797.

Reynolds, C. R., & Voress, J. K. (2007). Test of Memory and Learning (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Semel, E., Wiig, E., & Secord, W. (1987). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - Revised. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Snowling, M. J. (1991). Developmental reading disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32(1), 49-77.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 73-87.

Woodcock, R. W., & Johnson, M. B. (1989). Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Tests of Achievement. Chicago: Riverside.