Measures and References: Short-term Memory

Return to Short-term Memory factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Children's Memory Scale (CMS) (Cohen, 1997): Assesses Long- and Short-term Memory in verbal, visual, and attention/concentration domains in students aged five to 16

Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) (Reynolds & Voress, 2007): Measures verbal, nonverbal, and composite memory in people aged five to 59


Alloway, T. P., & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106(1), 20-29.

Cohen, M. J. (1997). Examiner's manual: Children's Memory Scale. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Davidse, N. J., de Jong, M. T., Bus, A. G., Huijbregts, S. C. J., & Swaab, H. (2011). Cognitive and environmental predictors of early literacy skills. Reading and Writing, 24(4), 395-412.

De Jong, P. F., & Olson, R. K. (2004). Early predictors of letter knowledge. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88(3), 254-273.

Harris, M. S., Kronenberger, W. G., Gao, S., Hoen, H. M., Miyamoto, R. T., & Pisoni, D. B. (2013). Verbal short-term memory development and spoken language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. Ear and Hearing, 34(2), 179.

Loomis, D., Holt, R., Kaufman, J. C., & Kaufman, A. S. (2010). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1-2.

Kail, R., & Hall, L. K. (2001). Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory. Memory & Cognition, 29(1), 1-9.

Kibby, M. Y. (2009). There are multiple contributors to the verbal short-term memory deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 15(5), 485-506.

Kibby, M. Y., & Cohen, M. J. (2008). Memory functioning in children with reading disabilities and/ or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A clinical investigation of their working memory and long-term memory functioning. Child Neuropsychology, 14(8), 525-546.

Kibby, M. Y., Marks, W., Morgan, S., & Long, C. J. (2004). Specific impairment in developmental reading disabilities: A working memory approach. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(4), 349-363.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, A. M., Fowler, C., & Fischer, F. W. (1977). Phonetic segmentation and recoding in the beginning reader. In A. S. Reber & D. Scarborough (Eds.), Toward a Psychology of Reading: The Proceedings of the C.U.N.Y. Conferences (pp. 207-225). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

McDougall, S. J. P., & Donohoe, R. (2002). Reading ability and memory span: Long-term memory contributions to span for good and poor readers. Reading and Writing, 15(3), 359-387.

Rispens, J., & Baker, A. (2012). Nonword repetition: The relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations in children with language and reading impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55(3), 683-694.

Snowling, M. J. (1991). Developmental reading disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32(1), 49-77.

Swanson, H. L., Zheng, X., & Jerman, O. (2009). Working memory, short-term memory, and reading disabilities: A selective meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(3), 260-287.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 73-87.

Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.

Wechsler, D. (1993). Wechsler objective reading dimensions. London, UK: Pearson Assessment.

Wechsler, D. (1996). Wechsler objective numerical dimensions. London, UK: Pearson Assessment.