Measures and References: Sight Recognition

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Fry 1000 Instant Words List (Fry & Kress, 2006): Assesses Sight Recognition skills in English by using the 300 words that make up about 65% of all written material


Burns, M. K., & Helman, L. A. (2009). Relationship between language skills and acquisition rate of sight words among English language learners. Literacy Research and Instruction, 48(3), 221-232.

Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5-51.

Ehri, L. C. (2014). Orthographic mapping in the acquisition of sight word reading, spelling memory, and vocabulary learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 5-21.

Ehri, L.C. (1995). Stages of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18(2), 116-125.

Fry, E. B., & Kress, J. E. (2006). The reading teacher's book of lists (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Griffin, C. P., & Murtagh, L. (2015). Increasing the sight vocabulary and reading fluency of children requiring reading support: The use of a Precision Teaching approach. Educational Psychology in Practice, 31(2), 186-209.

James, K. H. (2017). The importance of handwriting experience on the development of the literate brain.

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(6), 502-508.

Johnston, F. R. (2000). Word learning in predictable text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 248-255.

Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What's meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.

Rawlins, A., & Invernizzi, M. (2019). Reconceptualizing sight words: Building an early reading vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 72(6), 711-719.